300+ Top PSYCHOLOGY Objective Questions & Answers MCQs 2022 (2023)

PSYCHOLOGY Multiple Choice Questions :-

1. At which site the mind and body interact in the brain …

A. Pineal gland
B. throid gland
C. Hypothalamus
D. gonads

2. Who discovered the chemical basis of neurotransmission …

A. Bandura
B. Charles sherrington
C. Luigi galvani
D. Otto loewi

3. Human CNS is composed of …

A. somatic nervous system
B. brain and spinal cord
C. autonomic nervous system
D. all of these

4. The link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is due to the presence of?

A. corpus callosum
B. reticular formation
C. cerebellum
D. hypothalamus

5. In neurons, the axons are insulated by the a matter named as …

A. Nerve fiber
B. Myelin sheath
C. Ganglion
D. Sylvian sheath

6. The term “soma” is related to …

A. synapse
B. neuron
C. axon
D. cell body

7. Melatonin is produced by which gland?

A. posterior pituitary
B. hypothalamus
C. pineal gland
D. anterior pituitary

8. The goal of social cognitive therapy is basically …

A. self-actualization
B. self-regulation
C. uncovering hidden conflicts
D. all of these

9. Social Learning Theory was developed by …

A. Albert Bandura
B. Alfred Hitchcock
C. Albert dakwin
D. Albert Einstein

10. Bandura’s social cognitive theory is based on which perespective?

A. agentic
B. learning
C. behavioral
D. none of these4

11. The ecological theory explains about …

A. cognitive development
B. affective processes in development
C. environmental influences on development
D. none of these

12. Which theory says that there are sensitive periods of development in human life?

A. social cognition theory
B. ecological theory
C. ethological theory
D. none of these

13. Which of the following approaches to personality is least deterministic?
A. The humanistic approach
B. The behavioral approach
C. The psychoanalytic approach
D. The social learning approach

Answer: A

14. In Freud’s theory of personality
A. The id operates by secondary process
B. The superego obeys the pleasure principle
C. The ego obeys the reality principle
D. The ego operates by primary process thinking

Answer: C

15. The frustration-aggression hypothesis;
A. Was developed by social learning theorist
B. Assumes that frustration produces aggression
C. Assume that aggression is basic instinct
D. Claims that frustration and aggression are both instinctive

Answer: B

16. The James-Lange or body reaction theory of emotion says
A. You feel emotion then a bodily reaction
B. Emotions and visceral reactions are simultaneous
C. The somatic nervous system is the seat of emotion
D. You react with your body first then you feel emotion

Answer: D

17. Analysis of avoidance learning suggest that many phobias are acquired through ______ conditioning.
A. Classical
B. Operant
C. Intermittent
D. Reinforcement

Answer: A

18. The ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without reinforcement, is called_____
A. Contingency
B. Social learning
C. Cognitive learning
D. Instrumental learning

Answer: B

19. Conditioned response may be eliminated by withdrawing reinforcement. This is known as:
A. Extinction
B. Discrimination
C. Spontaneous recovery
D. Stimulus generalization

Answer: A

20. Any stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated is called a:
A. Cue
B. Punisher
C. reinforcer
D. Situational stimulus

Answer: C

21. Illnesses that seem to result from an interaction of physical and psychological factors are called:
A. Somatic
B. Hysterical
C. Psychosomatic
D. Conversion disorder

Answer: C

22. Which of the following clinical procedures are based, in part on classical conditioning?
A. Transference
B. Token economy
C. Two chair technique
D. Systematic desensitization

Answer: D

23. When people are _____ they have lost touch with reality.
A. Manic
B. Neurotic
C. Psychotic
D. Psychopathic

Answer: C

24. Intelligence can be defined as:
A. Knowledge of a great many facts
B. The ability to get good grades in school
C. All the factors that make one person different from another
D. The ability to think abstractly and learn from experience

Answer: D

25. According to Piaget the process of building mental representation of the world through direct interaction with it is:
A. Adaptation
B. Conservation
C. Metacognition
D. Egocentrism

Answer: A

26. People who consistently come up with _____ explanations of events are more prone to depression.
A. dysthemic
B. Delusional
C. Pessimistic
D. Overly optimistic

Answer: C

PSYCHOLOGY Objective Questions with Answers

27. The leading cause of mental retardation is believed to be:
A. Inherited traits
B. Environmental factors
C. Organic brain syndrome
D. Fetal alcohol syndrome

Answer: B

28. An affective disorder in which a person swings from one mood extreme to another is classified as:
A. Bipolar
B. Unipolar
C. Manic
D. Depressive

Answer: A

29. Albert Ellis and Aron Beck are names associated with the ____ therapy approach.
A. Gestalt
B. Cognitive
C. Behavioral
D. Phenomenological

Answer: B

30. The process by which a trained professional uses psychological methods to help people with psychological problem is known as:
A. Psychiatry
B. Psychoanalysis
C. Psychosurgery
D. Psychotherapy

Answer: D

31. Basic characteristics of tasks that result in social loafing is that they are:
A. Additive
B. Negative
C. Subtractive
D. Multiplicative

Answer: A

32. Job satisfaction is enhanced by tasks that are:
A. Very easy to accomplish
B. Overwhelming and rewarding
C. Unrelated to one’s personal needs
D. Challenging but not overwhelming

Answer: D

33. Piaget’s stage for infancy is:
A. Formal operation
B. Preoperational thought
C. Sensory motor thoughts
D. Concrete operations

Answer: C

34. When a researcher tests several groups of people at the same time each group at a different age, he is conducting a(n) ______ study.
A. Sequential
B. Cross-sectional
C. Longitudinal
D. Observational

Answer: B

35. An individual becomes a member of social group through the process of:
A. Aging
B. Learning
C. Maturation
D. Socialization

Answer: D

36. The first two weeks of life are referred to as:
A. Early childhood
B. The neonatal period
C. The period of infancy
D. The preoperational stage

Answer: B

37. It would be more accurate to say that maturation:
A. Can be delayed by illness or poor nutrition
B. Is dramatically accelerated by good nutrition
C. Is not affected by any environmental factors because it is genetic
D. Is greatly accelerated by good health care and delayed by illness

Answer: D

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38. Which of the following is part of the psychosocial domain?
A. Memory
B. Judgment
C. Motor skills
D. Style of behaving

Answer: D

39. The stage of prenatal development during which the developing organism is most vulnerable to injury is the:
A. Embryonic stage
B. Fetal stage
C. Germinal stage
D. Zygotic stage

Answer: A

40. The child’s increasing skill at using his muscles is due chiefly to:
A. Maturation
B. Learning
C. Pushing by parents
D. An opportunity to exercise

Answer: B

41. In psychology, case studies are used to:
A. show importance of case studies.
B. assess heritability of individual
C. draw general conclusions about behaviour of the client
D. draw conclusions , about individual behavior on the basis of group finding

Answer: C

42. Perceptual constancies are
A. Likely inborn and not subject to leaning
B. An aid in perceiving a stable and consistent world
C. Confusing to an individual rather than helping him determine what really exists
D. Illusion in which we perceive something that does not correspond to the sensory information

Answer: B

43. Psychology may best be described as the scientific study of _______ and ______.
A. Mental states, physical states
B. Thoughts, emotions
C. Behavior, mental processes
D. Mental health, mental illness

Answer: C

44. Freud believed that adult problems usually:
A. Result in Freudian slip
B. Result in bad dreams
C. Can be traced back to critical stage during childhood
D. Are the result of poor behavior

Answer: C

45. Gestalt theory emphasizes:
A. A flow of consciousness
B. The atoms of thought
C. Environmental stimuli
D. Our tendency to see pattern

Answer: D

46. Whereas the _______ asked what happens when an organism does something; the _____ asked how and why.
A. functionalist, behaviorist
B. structuralist, introspectionist
C. structuralist, functionalist
D. functionalist, structuralist

Answer: D

47. The _____ lobe is to hearing as the occipital lobe is to vision.
A. cerebeller
B. Parietal
C. Temporal
D. Frontal

Answer: C

48. Reflexes are usually controlled by the:
A. Hypothalamus
B. Spinal cord
C. Frontal lobe
D. Medulla

Answer: B

49. A part of the brain that sends signals “alert” to higher centers of the brain in response to incoming messages is:
A. amygdala
B. Hippocampus
C. Limbic system
D. Reticular formation

Answer: D

50. Perception of the brightness of a color in affected mainly by:
A. The saturation of light waves
B. The wavelength of light waves
C. The purity of light waves
D. The amplitude of light waves

Answer: A

51. Which of the following is not a clue for depth perception?
A Orientation
B Interposition
C Reduced clarity
D Linear perspective

Answer: A

52. Psychophysics is the study of:
A Depth perception
B Perceptual illness
C Movement perception
D The psychological perception oh physical stimuli

Answer: D

53. Which of the following is a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system?
A Brain and spinal cord
B Only sympathetic nervous system
C Only the parasympathetic nervous system
D Both the sympathetic and Para-sympathetic nervous system

Answer: D

54. Which one of the following does not contribute to memory ?
A Interesting / disinteresting learning material
B Goal behind learning
C Gender
D Some rest after learning

Answer: C
55. In terms of efficiency in scanning information, which one of the following strategies is considered to be the best ?
A Conservative focusing
B Focus gambling
C Simultaneous scanning
D Successive scanning

Answer: C
56. According to Master and Johnson following is the correct sequence of human s..ual response :
A Excitement → Orgasm → Plateau → Resolution
B Excitement → Plateau → Orgasm → Resolution
C Excitement → Arousal → Orgasm → Resolution
D Arousal → Excitement → Orgasm → Resolution

Answer: B
57. In graphical representations showing stress levels on X axis and performance on Y axis, best performance can be expected at
A Lower end of X axis
B Middle portion of X axis
C Higher end of X axis
D None of the above

Answer: B

58. Lesions of the ventromedial nuclei in the hypothalamus produce
A Anorexia
B Obesity
C Low level of Leptin
D Hypoinsulinemia

Answer: B

59. When the action potential reaches the end of the axon terminals, it causes the release of
A An electric spark that sets off the next neuron
B Positively charged ions that excite the next cell
C Negatively charged ions that inhibit the next cell.
D Neurotransmitters that excite or inhibit the next cell.

Answer: D

60. AIDS attack a number of very different population; young gay men, intravenous d–g users, haemophiliacs, Haitians, infants and recipients of blood transfusion, but commonly among them is the decrease in T lymphocytes, so it is an example of
A Inductive reasoning
B Deductive reasoning
C Analogical reasoning
D Syllogism

Answer: A

61. Muller-Lyer illusion is likely to occur more in cultures characterised by
A People living in rectangular and square buildings
B People living in buildings which are round and have few corners
C People living in open spaces
D People living in caves

Answer: A

62. One prominent class of theorists of deductive reasoning believe that deduction depends on _____ of inference akin to those of ______.
A informal rules; logical calculus
B formal rules; analytical calculus
C procedural rules; logical calculus
D formal rules; logical calculus

Answer: D

63. What is the correct sequence of products in Guilford’s Struct of Intellect Model (SOI) ?
A Unit → Class → System → Relations → Implication → Transformation
B Class → Unit → Systems → Relation → Transformation → Implication
C Unit → Class → Relation → System → Transformation → Implication
D Unit → Relation → Class → System → Transformation → Implication

Answer: C

64. The light passes through the eye in which of the following sequence ?
A Cornea, Pupil, Lens, Retina
B Cornea, Lens, Pupil, Retina
C Lens, Cornea, Pupil, Retina
D Pupil, Cornea, Lens, Retina

Answer: A

65. Which one of the following statement is true in the context of item analysis ?
A Item-total correlation = Item-remainder correlation
B Item-total correlation is greater than or equal to item-remainder correlation.
C Item-total correlation is smaller than or equal to item-remainder correlation.
D Item-total correlation cannot be negative.

Answer: B

66. The difference in images in the two eyes is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects is an example of
A Binocular Disparity
B Convergence
C Accommodation
D Relative Size

Answer: A

67. Shaping in instrumental conditioning means
A Teaching a complex sequence of behaviours by first shaping the final response in the sequence and then working backwards
B A continuous reinforcement schedule is used for establishing new behaviours.
C It involves reinforcing successive approximations of the final desired behaviour.
D Consistent occurrence of a behaviour in the presence of discriminative stimulus.

Answer: C

68. According to Trichromatic theory of colour vision, which of the following are the three types of cones ?
A Red, Yellow and Blue
B Red, Blue and Green
C Yellow, Blue and Green
D Yellow, Red and Blue

Answer: B

69. Which one of the following conclusion can be drawn on the basis of the above study ?
A The researcher’s hypothesis has been accepted.
B The researcher’s hypothesis has been rejected.
C The researcher’s hypothesis has been partially accepted.
D Inadequate data to evaluate researcher’s hypothesis.

Answer: B

70. Amit met with an accident and later turned into impulsive, irresponsible and less concerned with the consequences of his actions. He must have suffered damage in
A Parietal lobe
B Frontal lobe
C Occipital lobe
D Temporal lobe

Answer: B

71 Effective teaching may include conceptual scaffolding, which is best described by the following statement :
A introducing practice sessions after every module.
B gradually fading support as student proficiency increases.
C punishing student for incorrect answers.
D encouraging brighter students to help weaker students.

Answer: B

72 A social worker, appointed to assist the psychiatrist, used to administer and interpret Rorschach test. This is an
A ethically incorrect practice
B ethically correct practice
C ethically correct practice provided the results are used only for diagnostic purpose.
D ethically correct practice provided the results are kept confidential and are used only for diagnostic purpose.

Answer: A

73 A social worker, appointed to assist the psychiatrist, used to administer and interpret Rorschach test. This is an
A ethically incorrect practice
B ethically correct practice
C ethically correct practice provided the results are used only for diagnostic purpose.
D ethically correct practice provided the results are kept confidential and are used only for diagnostic purpose.

Answer: A

74 The following instrument can not be utilized in the measurement of emotions :
A Sphygmomano meter
B Galvanic skin response
C Digital thermometer
D Pupillary measurement camera

Answer: C

75 Arrange in sequence the stage of personality development according to Rollo May
A Innocence → ordinary consciousness of self → rebellion → creative consciousness of self
B Innocence → rebellion → ordinary consciousness of self → creative consciousness of self
C Ordinary consciousness of self → innocence → rebellion → creative consciousness of self
D Rebellion → innocence → ordinary consciousness of self → creative consciousness of self

Answer: B

76 The rapid change in performance as the size of reinforcement in varied is called
A Crespi effect
B Disequilibrium hypothesis
C Premack principal
D Programmed learning

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Answer: A

77 In Solomon Asch’s study on conformity, subjects conformed to the Group approximately what percent of time
A 25%
B 35%
C 45%
D over 50%

Answer: B

78 Perceived fairness of the amount and rewards among individuals refers to ________ while perceived fairness of the ways used for rewards and pays refers to _________.
A Organizational justice, Distributive justice
B Equity, Organizational justice
C Distributive justice; Procedural justice
D Procedural justice; Distributive justice

Answer: C

79 The concept of _______ is vital in the understanding of fractional antedating goal response
A Drive stimulus reduction
B Reactive Inhibition
C Secondary Reinforcement
D Conditioned Inhibition

Answer: C

80 Which of the following identity status describes the individual who has been exploring but not yet committed to self chosen values and goals ?
A Identity achievement
B Identity foreclosure
C Identity diffusion
D Identity moratorium

Answer: D

81 Scientific study of Creativity is considered to be started by
A Galton
B Guilford
C Torrance
D Mednick

Answer: B

82 Culture exerts strong effect on memory through the operation of cultural schema. One’s memory is influenced by learning in
A Own culture effect
B Culture effect due to enculturation
C Acculturation effect
D Socialization effect

Answer: A

83 Evolutionary Social Psychology Research seeks to investigate :
A Changes in human behaviour
B Seeks to investigate the potential role of genetic factors on social behaviour
C Interrelationships between people of two groups of different social environment
D Focuses on individual’s behaviour.

Answer: B

84 Which one of the following is the right explanation of flash bulb memory ?
A New, important, helpful social events
B Unspecific, important, common events
C Specific, surprising, unimportant events
D Unspecific, important, common events

Answer: A

85 Which of the following sequences is correct with respect to effective teaching ?
A Match student’s level → specify learning goals → emphasize self comparison → suggest improvements and model problem solving.
B Specify learning goals → emphasize self-comparison → suggest improvements and model problem solving → match student’s level.
C Suggest improvements and model problem solving → match student’s level → specify learning goals → emphasize self-comparison
D Emphasize self-comparison → match student’s level → specify learning goals → suggest improvements and model problem solving.

Answer: A

86 Sleep disorders can be categorized as
A Paraphilias and Dysfunctions
B Insomnia and Hypersomnia
C Parasomnias and Dyssomnias
D Serotonergic and Dopaminergic

Answer: C

87 Which is the correct sequence of the stages involved in creative thinking ?
A Preparation; orientation; illumination; incubation; verification
B Preparation; incubation; illumination; orientation; verification
C Orientation; preparation; incubation; illumination; verification
D Orientation; preparation; illumination; incubation; verification

Answer: C

88 Selective attention in vision and audition respectively have been dubbed as
A ‘optic’ and ‘haptic’
B ‘spotlight’ and ‘gateway’
C ‘spatial’ and ‘acoustic’
D ‘central’ and ‘peripheral

Answer: B

89 Which is not the part of “on the job training” ?
A Orientation training
B Job instruction training
C Role playing
D Apprentice training

Answer: C

90 “Pygmalion effect” in educational settings suggests :
A exceptional progress by student as a result of high teacher expectations.
B biases creeping into summative assessment
C authenticity factors in classroom assessment.
D influences on curricular structure.

Answer: A

91 Which of the following is not a diagnosable sleep disorder :
A Somnambulism
B Somniloquy
C Sleep terror
D Insomnia

Answer: B

92 A field experiment at the Bronx Zoo illustrated the potential importance of _________ indicating that an individual has legitimate authority. Fill in the blank from given below.
A Gender
B Uniforms
C Age
D An authoritarian personality

Answer: D

93 Thinking is a complex set of collaborations between __________ and _________representations and processes.
A Linguistic; semantic
B Linguistic; verbal
C Semantic; non-linguistic
D Linguistic; non-linguistic

Answer: D

94 Signal detection depends upon
A motivation and expectations
B signal intensity and noise
C sensitivity and response criterion
D absolute and relative thresholds

Answer: C

95 Which of the following does not present with symptoms of mental retardation ?
A Cri du chat syndrome
B Down’s syndrome
C Fugue
D Trisomy-21

Answer: C

96 Therapist suggested to Sunil that while trying to give up the habit of washing hands unnecessarily, he should wear a rubber band around his wrist and snap it everytime he feels like washing his hands. What therapy he is using ?
A Systematic desensitization
B Aversion therapy
C Flooding
D Modelling

Answer: B

97 The need for _______ produces active, controlling social behaviour while need for _________ produces more passive, less controlling social behaviour.
A affiliation; self-esteem
B confidence; intimacy
C affiliation; intimacy
D intimacy; affiliation

Answer: C

98 According to Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, arrange the correct functional sequence of metacomponents
A Identification of problem → defining the givens, goals & obstacles → choosing appropriate strategy → selection of lower order processes → selection of mental representation → allocation of mental resources → monitoring → evaluation.
B Identification of problem → defining the givens, goals & obstacles → selection of lower order processes → choosing appropriate strategy → selecting a mental representation → allocating mental resources → monitoring → evaluation.
C Identification of problem → choosing appropriate strategy → defining givens, goals and obstacles → allocating mental resources → monitoring → selecting mental representation → evaluation
D Defining the givens, goals and obstacles → identification of problem → selection of lower order processes → choosing appropriate strategy → selecting a mental representation → allocating mental resources → monitoring → evaluation

Answer: B

99 Which is the correct sequence of the stages involved in creative thinking ?
A Preparation; orientation; illumination; incubation; verification
B Preparation; incubation; illumination; orientation; verification
C Orientation; preparation; incubation; illumination; verification
D Orientation; preparation; illumination; incubation; verification

Answer: C

100 In which one of the following scaling methods, Law of Comparative Judgement is used clearly while computing scale values ?
A. Summated ratings
B. Equal appearing intervals
C. JND scales
D. Paired Comparison

Answer: D

101 The model of memory most frequently cited consists of Short Term Memory (STM) which serve(s) as gateway to Long Term Memory (LTM). This model was propounded by
A. Ebbinghaus
B. Craik and Lockhart
C. Tulving
D. Atkinson and Shiffring

Answer: D

102 The phenomenon of clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed and had been discredited refers to :
A. Belief bias
B. Belief perseverance
C. Over confidence
D. Framing decisions

Answer: B

103 Mechanistic and Cognitive approaches to motivation differ in the extent to which ______ are invoked to account for the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of goal directed behaviour.
A. Dynamic traits
B. Higher mental processes
C. Drives
D. Instincts

Answer: B

104 Which of the following is the term for describing a child’s one word utterances ?
A. Over extensions
B. Under extensions
C. Holophrases
D. Telegraphic speech

Answer: C

105 What would be the multiple correlation between the job efficiency and the three predictors (M.B.A. marks, selection test scores, and the evaluations scores at the end of inhouse training) ?
A. 0.50
B. 0.65
C. 0.75
D. Inadequate data

Answer: C

106 The b coefficient obtained in multiple regression is
A. Partial correlation coefficient
B. Correlation coefficient
C. Regression coefficient
D. Partial regression coefficient

Answer: D

107 Which one of the following conclusion can be drawn on the basis of above paragraph ?
A. All the four predictors (M.B.A. marks, selection test scores, evaluation scores at the end of inhouse training and communication skills) are uncorrelated with each other.
B. Out of the four predictors, at least some are correlated with each other.
C. Communication skills scores are uncorrelated with other predictors.
D. The four predictors theoretically appear to be correlated, but we cannot infer about their intercorrelations from the data provided.

Answer: B

108 Words learned under water are recalled :
A. Better on land than under water
B. Better above land (sky) than on land
C. Better above land (sky) than under water
D. Better under water than on land

Answer: D

109 Amit met with an accident and later turned into impulsive, irresponsible and less concerned with the consequences of his actions. He must have suffered damage in
A. Parietal lobe
B. Frontal lobe
C. Occipital lobe
D. Temporal lobe

Answer: B

110 Effective teaching may include conceptual scaffolding, which is best described by the following statement :
A. introducing practice sessions after every module.
B. gradually fading support as student proficiency increases.
C. punishing student for incorrect answers.
D. encouraging brighter students to help weaker students.

Answer: B

111 A social worker, appointed to assist the psychiatrist, used to administer and interpret Rorschach test. This is an
A. ethically incorrect practice
B. ethically correct practice
C. ethically correct practice provided the results are used only for diagnostic purpose.
D. ethically correct practice provided the results are kept confidential and are used only for diagnostic purpose.

Answer: A

112 Arrange in sequence the stage of personality development according to Rollo May
A. Innocence → ordinary consciousness of self → rebellion → creative consciousness of self
B. Innocence → rebellion → ordinary consciousness of self → creative consciousness of self
C. Ordinary consciousness of self → innocence → rebellion → creative consciousness of self
D. Rebellion → innocence → ordinary consciousness of self → creative consciousness of self

Answer: B

113 The rapid change in performance as the size of reinforcement in varied is called
A. Crespi effect
B. Disequilibrium hypothesis
C. Premack principal
D. Programmed learning

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Answer: A

114 In Solomon Asch’s study on conformity, subjects conformed to the Group approximately what percent of time
A. 25%
B. 35%
C. 45%
D. over 50%

Answer: B

115 Perceived fairness of the amount and rewards among individuals refers to ________ while perceived fairness of the ways used for rewards and pays refers to _________.
A. Organizational justice, Distributive justice
B. Equity, Organizational justice
C. Distributive justice; Procedural justice
D. Procedural justice; Distributive justice

Answer: C

116 Which of the following identity status describes the individual who has been exploring but not yet committed to self chosen values and goals ?
A. Identity achievement
B. Identity foreclosure
C. Identity diffusion
D. Identity moratorium

Answer: D

117 Scientific study of Creativity is considered to be started by
A. Galton
B. Guilford
C. Torrance
D. Mednick

Answer: B

118 Sleep disorders can be categorized as
A. Paraphilias and Dysfunctions
B. Insomnia and Hypersomnia
C. Parasomnias and Dyssomnias
D. Serotonergic and Dopaminergic

Answer: C

119 Which is the correct sequence of the stages involved in creative thinking ?
A. Preparation; orientation; illumination; incubation; verification
B. Preparation; incubation; illumination; orientation; verification
C. Orientation; preparation; incubation; illumination; verification
D. Orientation; preparation; illumination; incubation; verification

Answer: C

120 Selective attention in vision and audition respectively have been dubbed as
A ‘optic’ and ‘haptic’
B ‘spotlight’ and ‘gateway’
C ‘spatial’ and ‘acoustic’
D ‘central’ and ‘peripheral

Answer: B

122 In Erikson’s theory, which psycho-social crises preceed and succeed Autonomy v/s Shame :
1 Basic trust v/s mistrust and Industry v/s Inferiority
2 Basic trust v/s mistrust and Industry v/s Inferiority
3 Industry v/s Inferiority and Identity v/s Role confusion.
4 Basic trust v/s mistrust and Initiative v/s Guilt.

Answer: Basic trust v/s mistrust and Initiative v/s Guilt.

123 Read each of the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R); and indicate your answer using code given below :
Assertion (A) : Horner found high level of motive to avoid success or fear of success in females.

Reason (R) : As a result of success, the threat of social rejection and fear concerning perceived lack of feminity are aroused in women

1 Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2 Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
3 (A) is true, but (R) is false
4 (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer: Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

124 Read each of the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R); and indicate your answer using code given below :
Assertion (A) : Perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment is used to determine organizational outcomes.

Reason (R) : People expect informational transparency and respect in organizations.

code :
1 Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2 Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
3 (A) is true, but (R) is false.
4 (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer: Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

125 Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer by choosing from code given below : List-I List-II (Concept) (Explanation) (a) Episodic retrieval (i)Physical environment at retrieval matching that at encoding. (b)Context-dependent retrieval (ii)Mood at retrieval matching that at encoding. (c)State-dependent retrieval (iii)Retrieval stimulated by hints from the external and internal environment. (d)Cue-dependent retrieval (iv)Subsequent reactivation of stored memory
code : (a) (b) (c) (d)
1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
2 (ii) (iv) (iii) (i)
3 (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)
4 (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)

Answer: (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)

126 Read each of the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R); and indicate your answer using code given below :
Assertion (A) : Rational persuation refers to the use of logical arguments and facts to persuade others for achieving a desired result.

Reason (R) : Managers use several techniques to influence others in organizations.

code:
1 Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2 Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
3 (A) is true, but (R) is false.
4 (B) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer: Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

127 Read each of the following statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R); and indicate your answer using code given below :
Assertion (A) : Perception remains constant although the proximal sensation changes

Reason (R) : Our perceptual system has mechanisms that adjust our perception of the proximal stimulus.

code:
A. Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
B. Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
C. (A) is true, but (R) is false.
D. (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer: Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

128 Which of the following explains the Threshold Hypothesis regarding Intelligence – Creativity relationship ?
A. There is a positive correlation between Intelligence and Creativity
B. There is a positive correlation between Intelligence and Creativity upto a particular level of Intelligence
C. There is a positive correlation between Intelligence and Creativity beyond a particular level of Intelligence.
D. There is a negative correlation between Intelligence and Creativity beyond a particular level of Intelligence.

Answer: 2

129 Which one of the trait theories/models is/are NOT based on factor analytic methodology ? (a) Allport’s Theory (b) Costa and McCrae’s Model (c) Goldberg’s Model (d) Eysenck’s Theory
code:
A. (a) only
B. (a) and (c) only
C. (b) and (c) only
D. (4) (b) and (d) only

Answer: (a) only

130 The factors that operate with deep levels of processing are : (a) Distinctiveness (b) Sameness (c) Elaboration (d) Physical contours
Code:
1 (a) and (b) only
2 (b) and (c) only
3 (b) and (d) only
4 (a) and (c) only

Answer: (a) and (c) only

131 Backward Conditioning occurs when :
A. CS and US are presented simultaneously
B. CS is presented first and US is presented before the termination of CS
C. CS is presented first and US is presented after the termination of CS
D. US is presented first and CS is presented after the termination of US

Answer: D

132 The James-Lange theory and the cognitive theory of emotion disagree on whether :
A. specific brain centers are involved in specific emotions.
B. bodily feedback determines which emotion is felt.
C. individuals can judge their emotions accurately.
D. there is no any biological involvement in human emotions.

Answer: B

133 Biologically based emotional and behavioural tendencies that are evident in early childhood represent :
A. Trait
B. Type
C. Temperament
D. Style

Answer: C

134 In Jungian theory, the idea that energy is automatically redistributed in the psyche in order to achieve equilibrium or balance depicts :
A. Principle of Equivalence
B. Principle of Synchronicity
C. Principle of Entrophy
D. Principle of Opposites

Answer: C

135 After the recent terrorist attacks in France, a psychologist proposed a study wherein he would interview two hundred French citizens to find whether their attitude towards fate as a consequence of the attack. This study can best be labelled as :
A. attitude change experiment
B. field experiment
C. ex post facto study
D. psychometric study

Answer: C

136 Which of the following is correct while comparing classical and operant conditioning ?
A. Operant conditioning takes place before reinforcement while classical conditioning takes place after reinforcement.
B. Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some voluntary action while classical conditioning takes place without choice.
C. In operant conditioning, response is elicited while in classical conditioning it is emitted.
D. In operant conditioning magnitude of the response is the index of conditioning while in classical conditioning it is the rate of response.

Answer: B

137 Words learned under water are recalled :
A. Better on land than under water
B. Better above land (sky) than on land
C. Better above land (sky) than under water
D. Better under water than on land

Answer: D

138 Which of the following sequence is correct ?
A. Oral phase ® Anal phase ® Latency ® Phallic ® Genital
B. Anal ® Oral ® Phallic ® Latency ® Genital
C. Oral ® Anal ® Phallic ® Latency ® Genital
D. Oral ® Phallic ® Anal ® Genital ® Latency

Answer: C

139 Which memory is the result of instrumental/motor learning processes ?
A. Semantic memory
B. Episodic memory
C. Sensory memory
D. Procedural memory

Answer: D

140. In which lobe of the cerebral cortex, the primary olfactory cortex lies ?
A. Frontal lobe
B. Temporal lobe
C. Occipital lobe
D. Parietal lobe

Answer: B

141. “Factor Analysis is used as a means of confirming a structured model than as a means of discovering a structural model”. This is true of which theory of intelligence ?
A. Spearman
B. Thurstone
C. Jensen
D. Guilford

Answer: D

142. What is the role of positive and negative reinforcement ?
A. To increase the likelihood that responses preceding both will be repeated.
B. To decrease the likelihood that responses preceding negative reinforcement will be repeated.
C. To increase the likelihood that responses preceding only positive reinforcement will be repeated.
D. To ensure that there are no negative consequences following the behaviour.

Answer: A

143. While forming a concept one chooses to take one hypothesis and selects many of its features to quickly form the concept at once :
A. Successive scanning
B. Conservative focusing
C. Focus gambling
D. Simultaneous scanning

Answer: C

144. What is the correct sequence an auditory stimulus takes to reach the primary auditory cortex ?
A. Cochlear nuclei – Superior olive – Inferior colliculus – Medial geniculate nucleus
B. Cochlear nuclei – Inferior colliculus – Superior olive – Medial geniculate nucleus
C. Superior olive – Cochlear nuclei – Inferior colliculus – Medial geniculate nucleus
D. Medial geniculate nucleus – Inferior colliculus – Superior olive – Cochlear nucleus

Answer: A

145. In the above context, which one of the following correlation should be computed to obtain item-remainder correlations ?
A. Point biserial correlation
B. Phi-coefficient
C. Rank difference correlation
D. Tetrachoric correlation

Answer: A

146. Which one of the following statement would be true in the above context ?
A. Kuder – Richardson reliability coefficient would also be .90, but the split-half reliability coefficient may differ from .90.
B. Split-half reliability coefficient would also be .90, but the Kuder – Richardson reliability coefficient may differ from .90.
C. Both Kuder – Richardson reliability coefficient and split-half reliability coefficient would be .90.
D. The correlation between odd and even parts of the test would be .90.

Answer: A

147. To obtain inter-item correlations, which one of the following correlation coefficient should be used in the above analysis ?
A. Biserial correlation
B. Point biserial correlation
C. Phi-coefficient
D. Rank difference correlation

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Answer: C

148. What is the expected Cronbach alpha for the short versions, referred to in the paragraph ?
A. 0.45
B. 0.67
C. 0.82
D. 0.90

Answer: C

149. Which one of the following conclusion can be drawn from the data provided above ? The new Abstract Thinking Test has :
A. Satisfactory convergent validity
B. Satisfactory divergent validity
C. Satisfactory concurrent validity
D. Unsatisfactory concurrent validity

Answer: D

150. The factors that influence social behaviour and thoughts in certain ways are called :
A. Independent variables
B. Confounding variables
C. Dependent variables
D. Mediating variables

Answer: D

151. Phonemic restoration as we perceive speech in a noisy party is an example of :
A. Top down processing
B. Bottom up processing
C. Subliminal perception
D. Supraliminal perception

Answer: A

152. Feeling touchy or hypersensitive following an upsetting experience is a form of :
A. Imprinting
B. Habituation
C. Sensitization
D. Reflexive Behaviour

Answer: C

153. Because it has the external features associated with the concept of dog, a wolf is perceived as a dog. This is an example of :
A. Centration
B. Equilibration
C. Object permanence
D. Prototype

Answer: D

154. Which of the following is the final destination for much of the brain’s information about emotion before action is taken ?
A. Amygdala
B. Anterior cingulate cortex
C. Pre-frontal cortex
D. Hypothalamus

Answer: C

155. Cattell propounded gf-gc theory of intelligence mainly based on :
A. First order factors of abilities
B. Second order factors of abilities
C. Third order factors of abilities
D. Higher order factors of abilities

Answer: B

156. Which one of the following statements is true ?
A. The ‘Global Five’ factors in personality refer to the second-order factors of 16 PF, latest edition.
B. The ‘Global Five’ factors refer to the factors assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, latest edition.
C. The ‘Global Five’ factors refer to the factors assessed by Goldberg’s bipolar adjectives.
D. The ‘Global Five’ factors are derived from Eysenck Personality Profiler, latest edition.

Answer: A

157. Which of the following statements best defines maturation ?
A. It is directly based on social-cognitive learning
B. It is an automatic biological development of the body that naturally unfolds over time
C. It does not take place in human beings
D. It is the basis of all physical and psychological developments

Answer: B

158. Four important elements in the theory of signal detection are :
A. errors, hits, speed and accuracy
B. speed, accuracy, power and false alarm
C. hit, miss, correct rejection and false alarm
D. acuity, efficacy, speed and power

Answer: C

159. Jia had written a list to do her week end work, but incidently left it home while going out for her first activity. Trying to remember the list, Jia remembers what was at the beginning of the list and what was at the end but not those things in the middle. This is an example of :
A. Encoding specificity effect
B. Flash bulb memory
C. Serial position effect
D. Tip-of-the tongue effect

Answer: C

160. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) are mainly indexing :
A. Creative Products
B. Creative Processes
C. Creative Personality
D. Creative Persuation

Answer: B

161. Which one of the scaling method is more likely to yield multidimensional attitude scale ?
A. Guttman scalogram analysis
B. Paired comparison method
C. Equal appearing intervals method
D. Method of summated rating

Answer: D

162. When is aspiration a method of choice to make a lesion ?
A. in a deeper brain area
B. in an area of cerebral cortex
C. an irreversible lesion
D. in underlying white matter

Answer: B

163. A psychologist was administering a projective test which involved a word association task. She tended to nod and smile every time a plural word was given by the respondent. The following testing bias was seen :
A. favoritism
B. test wiseness
C. selective reinforcement
D. gender of assessor

Answer: C

164. Which of the following is a characteristic of Chomsky’s theory ?
A. Development of language is between three and five years of age
B. Language development is dependent on the reinforcements received by the child
C. Children acquire mistakes in language by observing their parents and others around them
D. Children have an innate mental grammar

Answer: D

165. The centre – surround organization of ganglion cells that enhance contrast at edges in a visual environment is well illustrated by :
A. Craik bands
B. Mach bands
C. Luminance bands
D. Optic bands

Answer: A

166. The growth needs of ERG theory are represented by various needs in Maslow’s model :
A. Physiological and social needs
B. Safety needs and esteem needs
C. Social needs and esteem needs
D. Esteem needs and self-actualization needs

Answer: D

167. In Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, the following appear in ascending order :
A. Remember ® Understand ® Apply ® Analyze
B. Apply ® Analyze ® Understand ® Remember
C. Understand ® Apply ® Remember ® Analyze
D. Analyze ® Remember ® Apply ® Understand

Answer: A

168. Helpers respond to the needs of a victim because they want to accomplish something rewarding; this may be referred as :
A. Negative state – relief model
B. Empathic – joy hypothesis
C. Empathy – altruism hypothesis.
D. Pluralistic empathy

Answer: B

169. Which is the correct order of the emergence of following Psycho-Social strengths ?
A. Love, Fidelity, Wisdom, Care
B. Care, Fidelity, Love, Wisdom
C. Fidelity, Love, Care, Wisdom
D. Care, Fidelity, Wisdom, Love

Answer: C

170. Detecting movement in spite of camouflage is easier for people who are :
A. field dependent
B. field independent
C. both field dependent and field independent
D. neither field dependent nor field independent

Answer: B

171. Self is conceptualized in Western and Eastern perspectives on personality, respectively, as :
A. free and deterministic
B. instinctive and learned
C. ideal and real
D. independent and interdependent

Answer: D

172. When a Background Interference Procedure was used experimentally, the following findings became apparent ?
A. Field independent persons did better than field dependent persons
B. Field dependent persons did better than field independent persons
C. Both field dependent and field independent persons did equally well
D. BIP enhanced the performance of all subjects

Answer: A

173. People with moderate mental retardation would have an IQ in the range of :
A. 10 to 19
B. 35 to 54
C. 55 to 70
D. 20 to 34

Answer: B

174. The following is not typically found in a school guidance counsellor’s office :
A. Sand pit
B. Lie detector
C. Psychometric tests
D. Puppets and play dough

Answer: B

175. According to Piaget the children are able to grasp the concept of object permanence and conservation in :
A. Sensory motor stage
B. Pre-operational stage
C. Concrete operational stage
D. Formal operations stage

Answer: A

176. Which one of the following design is used in the above research ?
A. Multigroup design with single I.V.
B. 232 factorial design
C. 232 mixed factorial design
D. Repeated measures design

Answer: B

177. Which one of the following statement is true in the context of above study ?
A. The assumption of homogeneity of variance was satisfied.
B. The assumption of homogeneity of variance was not satisfied.
C. The correction for heterogeneity of variance was required.
D. The data are insufficient to evaluate the assumption of homogeneity of variance.

Answer: A

178. On the basis of the information provided about the main effect of A, it can be concluded that :
A. Interpolated learning had no effect on the recall of A.
B. Interpolated learning caused retroactive interference.
C. Interpolated learning caused retroactive facilitation.
D. Either retroactive interference or retroactive facilitation has occurred.

Answer: D

179. What would be the degrees of freedom for the numerator and denominator of the F – ratio defined as ‘MSA3B/MSE’ ?
A. 1 and 96 respectively
B. 1 and 98 respectively
C. 2 and 97 respectively
D. 3 and 96 respectively

Answer: A

180. A procedure that establishes a sequence of responses which lead to a reward following the final response and then working backwards is called
A. Shaping
B. Stimulus control
C. Chaining
D. Stimulus generalization

Answer: C

181. In a study on scaling of attitude items, eleven statements were included. What would be the number of pairs of attitude statements ?
A. 21
B. 55
C. 110
D. 121

Answer: B

182. Who first attempted to describe personality traits in terms of Lexican descriptors ?
A. Ross Stagner
B. Allport and Odbert
C. R.B. Cattell
D. Coasta and McCrae

Answer: B

183. Which of the following is correctly arranged ?
A. Encoding – retrieval – storage
B. Encoding – storage – retrieval
C. Storage – encoding – retrieval
D. Retrieval – encoding – storage

Answer: B

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