ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION OF MEDIA DATA (2022)

This application is a continuation of International Patent Application No. PCT/US2018/055721 filed Oct. 12, 2018 and entitled “ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION OF MEDIA DATA,” which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

International Patent Application No. PCT/US2018/055721 filed Oct. 12, 2018 claims priority to and the benefit of Norway Patent Application No. 20171641 filed Oct. 13, 2017 and entitled “ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION OF MEDIA DATA,” which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

The present application relates to encryption of data transmitted between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a ground controlling base, and when stored on the ground controlling base.

Modern warfare and law enforcement are characterized by an increasing need for up-to-date situational awareness. To track down, or to protect against, criminals, paramilitary forces or terrorists, law enforcement personnel and soldiers often have an immediate need for information about what is around the next corner or over the hill.

Hostile forces frequently hide themselves from view or exploit the local terrain to gain tactical advantage or escape from pursuers. In the presence of hostile forces, a simple brick wall, barbed wire fence, a body of water, buildings or even a large open area can be an insurmountable obstacle when time is of the essence and tactical resources are unavailable. An active or undetected threat can make the situation dangerous.

Visible indications, noises or predictable actions can reveal friendly forces and put them at risk. Stealth and surprise, however, are important elements that can give a tactical advantage. An UAV is an aircraft with no pilot on board (Also referred to herein as NUAV, where N is an abbreviation for Nano). UAVs can be remotely controlled (e.g. flown by a pilot/operator at a remote ground control station using a controller) or it can fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. An UAV may also be referred to as a drone. UAVs equipped with video cameras and positioning devices transmit live pictures and positioning information to the operator of the UAV and allows their operator to perform surveillance tasks and gather information from a safe position without exposing themselves during mission.

Unmanned aerial systems, often referred as drones, are becoming largely popular among general public and businesses. The system includes the actual unmanned aerial system (UAS), the ground control station and the communication link between them. The data transmitted between the ground station and the UAS in both directions, as well as the data stored on the ground control station memory chips in the case of an illegitimate access to it, should not be easily available to a third party, and protected by encryption.

Implementation of an encryption solution for a UAV system has to balance user friendliness against required system security. An important requirement is to allow for encrypted data storage without requiring any password or other specific user actions in order to execute a mission (i.e. time critical actions), but instead require specific actions when reviewing data recorded during the mission.

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The present application includes a method of combining symmetric and asymmetric cryptography for recording and playing back a video media data stream, by the steps of generating a public key and a corresponding private key, password protecting the private key, generating a symmetric data encryption key, encrypting said symmetric data encryption key by means of the public key and said video media data stream by means of the symmetric data encryption key, decrypting the private key by means of the password, decrypting the said symmetric data encryption key by means of the private key, and decrypting said video media data stream by means of the symmetric data encryption key.

The present application also includes the encryption and decryption parts of the above described method separately, though interacting with each other in a key/key whole manner.

The present application also includes an UAV system, having the above mentioned method implemented.

The following detailed description of the embodiments herein is accompanied by drawings in order to make it more readily understandable. In the drawings:

FIG. 1 illustrates an example of setting up a system according to the present application,

FIG. 2 illustrates an example of how to password protect a private key according to the present application,

FIG. 3 illustrates an example of recording video according to the present application,

FIG. 4 illustrates an example of play back video according to the present application.

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The drawings are not necessarily to scale and the dimensions of certain features may have been exaggerated for the sake of clarity. Symbols, video and pictures will usually be in colour. Emphasis is placed upon illustrating the principle of the embodiments herein.

In the following, the embodiments herein will be discussed and example embodiments described by referring to the accompanying drawings.

The present application relates to encryption of data transmitted between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a ground controlling base, and when stored on the ground controlling base.

Symmetric cryptography uses the same cryptographic keys for both encryption and decryption of data. The keys may be identical and often represent a shared secret between two or more parties that can be used to maintain a private information link.

Asymmetrical cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: Public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner. Data is encrypted by the public key, but only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt the data encrypted with the public key.

Because of the computational complexity of asymmetric encryption, it is usually used only for small blocks of data. The symmetric encryption/decryption is based on simpler algorithms and is much faster and less computational demanding.

In a public key encryption system, any person can encrypt data using the public key of the receiver, but such data can be decrypted only with the receiver's private key. For this to work it must be computationally feasible for a user to generate a public and private key-pair to be used for encryption and decryption. The strength of a public key cryptography system relies on the degree of difficulty for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Security then depends only on keeping the private key private, and the public key may be published without compromising security.

According to embodiments herein, a combination of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography is used to balance user friendliness against required system security.

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A public/private key pair is generated when a password is set in the ground control station. The public key may be stored in plaintext and is used as a key encryption key (KEK). Each time a mission is started, a data encryption key is generated (DEK), and the KEK is used to encrypt the DEK. Since the KEK is stored in plaintext, starting a mission will not require user input. The encrypted DEK (E-DEK) is stored together with the encrypted data.

Using the public key as key encryption key, means that the private key may be used as the key decryption key (KDK). The password is put into a password-based key derivation function (KDF) to produce a key for encrypting the KDK. The encrypted KDK may be stored on the ground control station together with the E-DEK and the encrypted data.

To decrypt and view the stored data, the user needs to enter the password. The password is entered into the KDF, thus producing the key that is able to decrypt the KDK. The KDK is then used to decrypt the DEK, which again is used to decrypt the data.

FIGS. 1-4 illustrate an example embodiment of the present application.

Referring to FIG. 1, when setting up a system according to the example embodiment, a public and private key-pair is generated. The public key is stored in plain text in the ground control station, while the private key is encrypted by a password before being stored.

FIG. 2 illustrates in more details how the private key is encrypted. SCRYPT is used to generate an AES key from the selected password. “Salt” is in this context random data that is used as an additional input to the one-way function that “hashes” the password. SCRYPT is in the illustrated example selected because it is a password-based key derivation function specifically designed to make it costly to perform large-scale custom hardware attacks by requiring large amounts of memory. It is generally designed to be computationally intensive, so that it takes a relatively long time to compute. However, setting up the system is only done occasionally, so the time required will still be negligible.

The AES key generated from the password as illustrated in FIG. 1 is then further used to perform the actual encryption of the private key (PRIV). This is done by an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm in Galois/Counter Mode (AES-GSM). In addition to the private key, an Initialization Vector (IV1) is input to the AES-GCM, generating the ciphertext of PRIV which is stored in the ground control station.

FIG. 3 illustrates how e.g. video captured by the UAV is encrypted during mission, i.e. in recording mode. First, a data encryption key K is generated. K is further used as a key to encrypt the video captured by the UAV. K itself is encrypted by the public key (PUB) generated in the above described process of setting up the system. Then the ciphertext of the captured video encrypted by K and the ciphertext of K encrypted by PUB will be stored in the ground control station.

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FIG. 4 illustrates the decryption process when play backing the encrypted video stored on the ground control station. In this process, the password entered at the time when setting up the system is needed. SCRYPT is again used to generate the AES key from the entered password. The AES key is in turn used to decrypt the private key (PRIV) from the ciphertext of PRIV stored on the ground control station also at the time when setting up the system. The decrypted PRIV is further used to decrypt the ciphertext of K which was generated by encryption of K by PUB at the time the video was recorded. K is then used to decrypt the stored ciphertext video which was generated by encryption of the video by K at the time the video was recorded. The video is then available for playback on e.g. the ground control station screen.

The different processes in embodiments of the present application can be further summarized in the following general stepwise description:

Setting Password on the System:

    • 1. Generate a public/private key pair (PUB/PRIV)
    • 2. Password entered through user interface
    • 3. Generate non secret parameters for input to key derivation function (KDF) (e.g. salt)
    • 4. Password or other parameters used as input to KDF to derive an encryption key K
    • 5. Use K to encrypt PRIV
    • 6. Store the PUB, the ciphertext of PRIV and non-secret input parameters to KDF
    • 7. Erase K and PRIV from the system memory

Storing Encrypted Data to the System:

    • 1. Generate a data encryption key DEK
    • 2. Use the public key PUB to encrypt DEK, and store the ciphertext
    • 3. Use DEK to encrypt the data, and store the data
    • 4. Erase DEK from the system memory

Accessing Encrypted Data:

    • 1. Password entered through user interface
    • 2. Read non-secret parameters for KDF from disk
    • 3. Input password and parameters read in 2. to KDF to obtain key K
    • 4. Read ciphertext of PRIV from disk and decrypt using K
    • 5. Read ciphertext of DEK from disk and decrypt using PRIV
    • 6. Read encrypted data from disk and decrypt using DEK
    • 7. Once finished, erase DEK, PRIV, K and decrypted data from system memory

It follows from the description of example embodiment of the present application above that the actual encryption and decryption of video is performed by the relatively low computational demanding symmetric cryptography, since the data encryption key K is used both for encryption and decryption.

However, a new K is generated for, and associated with, each respective video recording, but all Ks are encrypted and decrypted by the relatively high computational demanding asymmetric cryptography with the same public and private public key pair, which was generated in the setup of the system. The public key is stored in the ground control system as plain text, and the private key is stored as ciphertext, password protected and encrypted in the setup of the system.

Hence, recording of video will require no entry of the password thus making it possible for an instant UAV mission, but the video data will still be dual protected by encryption of both the video data itself and the data encryption key of which it is encrypted. Large amount of data, as video data tends to be, is encrypted and decrypted by symmetric cryptography, while low amount of data, as data encryption and decryption keys tend to be, is encrypted and decrypted by asymmetric cryptography.

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The above description discloses different example embodiments for illustrative purposes. A person skilled in the art would realize a variety of different combinations of symbols, symbol designs all being within the scope of the embodiments.

It should be emphasized that the term “comprises/comprising” when used in this specification is taken to specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, or components, but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof. It should also be noted that the words “a” or “an” preceding an element do not exclude the presence of a plurality of such elements.

It should also be emphasized that the steps of the methods defined in the appended claims may, without departing from the embodiments herein, be performed in another order than the order in which they appear in the claims.

FAQs

What is encryption and decryption short answer? ›

Encryption is the process by which a readable message is converted to an unreadable form to prevent unauthorized parties from reading it. Decryption is the process of converting an encrypted message back to its original (readable) format. The original message is called the plaintext message.

What is encryption and decryption of data with example? ›

Encryption is the process of translating plain text data (plaintext) into something that appears to be random and meaningless (ciphertext). Decryption is the process of converting ciphertext back to plaintext. To encrypt more than a small amount of data, symmetric encryption is used.

What is data encryption answer? ›

Data encryption is a way of translating data from plaintext (unencrypted) to ciphertext (encrypted). Users can access encrypted data with an encryption key and decrypted data with a decryption key. Protecting your data. Types of data encryption: asymmetric vs symmetric.

Why is encryption/decryption important in data communication? ›

It is helpful to prevent unauthorized person or group of users from accessing any confidential data. Encryption and decryption are the two essential functionalities of cryptography. A message sent over the network is transformed into an unrecognizable encrypted message known as data encryption.

Why is data encryption important? ›

It helps protect private information, sensitive data, and can enhance the security of communication between client apps and servers. In essence, when your data is encrypted, even if an unauthorized person or entity gains access to it, they will not be able to read it.

What are the 2 types of data encryption? ›

There are two types of encryption in widespread use today: symmetric and asymmetric encryption. The name derives from whether or not the same key is used for encryption and decryption.

How do I learn encryption and decryption? ›

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What is an example of encryption? ›

Encryption is an important way for individuals and companies to protect sensitive information from hacking. For example, websites that transmit credit card and bank account numbers encrypt this information to prevent identity theft and fraud.

How do you decrypt data? ›

Manually decrypting selected files
  1. Right-click on the file to be decrypted.
  2. From the menu options, click Properties.
  3. On the Properties page, click Advanced (located just above OK and Cancel).
  4. Uncheck the box for the option, Encrypt contents to secure data.
  5. Click Apply.

What happens to your data when it is encrypted? ›

Data encryption converts data from a readable, plaintext format into an unreadable, encoded format: ciphertext. Users and processes can only read and process encrypted data after it is decrypted. The decryption key is secret, so it must be protected against unauthorized access.

How can encryption be used to protect data? ›

How does encryption work? Encryption takes plain text, like a text message or email, and scrambles it into an unreadable format — called “cipher text.” This helps protect the confidentiality of digital data either stored on computer systems or transmitted through a network like the Internet.

What is decryption with example? ›

Definition: The conversion of encrypted data into its original form is called Decryption. It is generally a reverse process of encryption. It decodes the encrypted information so that an authorized user can only decrypt the data because decryption requires a secret key or password.

What are the 4 basic types of encryption systems? ›

While the most common are AES, RSA, and DES, there are other types being used as well. Let's dive into what these acronyms mean, what encryption is, and how to keep your online data safe.

What is data encryption and how does it work? ›

Encryption uses complex mathematical algorithms and digital keys to encrypt data. An encryption algorithm (cipher) and an encryption key encode data into ciphertext. Once the ciphertext is transmitted to the recipient, the same or different key (cipher) is used to decode the ciphertext back into the original value.

Why do we need encryption and decryption? ›

Encryption enhances the security of a message or file by scrambling the content. To encrypt a message, you need the right key, and you need the right key to decrypt it as well.It is the most effective way to hide communication via encoded information where the sender and the recipient hold the key to decipher data.

What would happen if we did not encrypt your data? ›

Unprotected sensitive data leads to identity theft, fraud, and theft of financial resources from employees and customers. Data breaches happen to both large, small, public, and private companies. In fact, today hackers are targeting small to mid-sized businesses simply because those networks tend to be less secure.

Why is data encryption and important information security defense? ›

Data Encryption is used to deter malicious or negligent parties from accessing sensitive data. An important line of defense in a cybersecurity architecture, encryption makes using intercepted data as difficult as possible.

Where is encryption used? ›

Encryption has been a longstanding way for sensitive information to be protected. Historically, it was used by militaries and governments. In modern times, encryption is used to protect data stored on computers and storage devices, as well as data in transit over networks.

How secure is encryption? ›

Generally, encryption is safe. Data transmitted and stored with encryption is safer than when left unencrypted. The average user uses encryption automatically many times daily when using a web browser or mobile app. Manual file encryption is safe with responsible handling of the decryption keys.

What is encryption and decryption class 9? ›

Encryption is the process that converts plain text into the coded one that appears to be meaningless, i.e., cipher text. Whereas, decryption is the process that converts ciphertext into plaintext.

What is encryption/decryption called? ›

The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography. In computing, unencrypted data is also known as plaintext, and encrypted data is called ciphertext.

What is meant by decryption? ›

Definition: The conversion of encrypted data into its original form is called Decryption. It is generally a reverse process of encryption. It decodes the encrypted information so that an authorized user can only decrypt the data because decryption requires a secret key or password.

What is encryption with example? ›

Encryption is an important way for individuals and companies to protect sensitive information from hacking. For example, websites that transmit credit card and bank account numbers encrypt this information to prevent identity theft and fraud.

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