FLIRC7200 Infrared Camera User Manual FLIR Systems AB (2022)

FLIR Systems AB Infrared Camera

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User’s manualFLIR Cx seriesUser’s manualFLIR Cx series#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-USiiiTable of contentsDisclaimers ......................................................................................11.1Legal disclaimer ....................................................................... 11.2Usage statistics ........................................................................ 11.3Changes to registry ................................................................... 11.4U.S. Government Regulations...................................................... 11.5Copyright ................................................................................ 11.6Quality assurance ..................................................................... 11.7Patents ................................................................................... 11.8EULA Terms ............................................................................ 11.9EULA Terms ............................................................................ 1Safety information .............................................................................3Notice to user ...................................................................................73.1User-to-user forums .................................................................. 73.2Calibration............................................................................... 73.3Accuracy ................................................................................ 73.4Disposal of electronic waste ........................................................ 73.5Training .................................................................................. 73.6Documentation updates ............................................................. 73.7Important note about this manual.................................................. 73.8Note about authoritative versions.................................................. 8Customer help ..................................................................................94.1General .................................................................................. 94.2Submitting a question ................................................................ 94.3Downloads ............................................................................ 10Quick Start Guide ............................................................................ 115.1Procedure ............................................................................. 11Description ..................................................................................... 126.1View from the front .................................................................. 126.2View from the rear................................................................... 126.3Connector ............................................................................. 136.4Screen elements .................................................................... 136.5Auto-orientation...................................................................... 136.6Navigating the menu system...................................................... 14Operation ....................................................................................... 157.1Charging the battery ................................................................ 157.2Turning on and turning off the camera.......................................... 157.3Saving an image ..................................................................... 157.3.1 General...................................................................... 157.3.2 Image capacity ............................................................ 157.3.3 Naming convention....................................................... 157.3.4 Procedure .................................................................. 157.4Recalling an image.................................................................. 157.4.1 General...................................................................... 157.4.2 Procedure .................................................................. 157.5Deleting an image ................................................................... 167.5.1 General...................................................................... 167.5.2 Procedure .................................................................. 167.6Deleting all images.................................................................. 167.6.1 General...................................................................... 167.6.2 Procedure .................................................................. 167.7Measuring a temperature using a spotmeter ................................. 177.7.1 General...................................................................... 177.8Hiding measurement tools ........................................................ 177.8.1 Procedure .................................................................. 17#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-USTable of contents7.97.107.117.127.137.147.157.167.177.187.19Changing the color palette ........................................................ 177.9.1 General...................................................................... 177.9.2 Procedure .................................................................. 17Changing the image mode ........................................................ 187.10.1 General...................................................................... 187.10.2 Procedure .................................................................. 18Changing the temperature scale mode ........................................ 197.11.1 General...................................................................... 197.11.2 When to use Lock mode ................................................ 197.11.3 Procedure .................................................................. 19Setting the emissivity ............................................................... 197.12.1 General...................................................................... 197.12.2 Procedure .................................................................. 20Changing the reflected apparent temperature ............................... 207.13.1 General...................................................................... 207.13.2 Procedure .................................................................. 20Changing the distance ............................................................. 207.14.1 General...................................................................... 207.14.2 Procedure .................................................................. 20Performing a non-uniformity correction ........................................ 217.15.1 What is a non-uniformity correction?................................. 217.15.2 When to perform a non-uniformity correction ...................... 217.15.3 Procedure .................................................................. 21Using the camera lamp ............................................................ 217.16.1 General...................................................................... 217.16.2 Procedure .................................................................. 21Configuring Wi-Fi .................................................................... 217.17.1 Setting up a peer-to-peer connection (most commonuse) .......................................................................... 227.17.2 Connecting the camera to a wireless local area network(less common use) ....................................................... 22Changing the settings .............................................................. 227.18.1 General...................................................................... 227.18.2 Procedure .................................................................. 23Updating the camera ............................................................... 237.19.1 General...................................................................... 237.19.2 Procedure .................................................................. 24Technical data ................................................................................. 258.1Online field-of-view calculator .................................................... 258.2Note about technical data ......................................................... 258.3Note about authoritative versions................................................ 258.4FLIR C2 ................................................................................ 268.5FLIR C2 Educational Kit ........................................................... 298.6FLIR C3 (incl. Wi-Fi) ................................................................ 328.7FLIR C3 (incl. Wi-Fi) Educational Kit ........................................... 36Mechanical drawings ....................................................................... 4010CE Declaration of conformity ............................................................ 4211Cleaning the camera ........................................................................ 4411.1Camera housing, cables, and other items..................................... 4411.1.1 Liquids....................................................................... 4411.1.2 Equipment .................................................................. 4411.1.3 Procedure .................................................................. 4411.2Infrared lens .......................................................................... 4411.2.1 Liquids....................................................................... 4411.2.2 Equipment .................................................................. 44#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-USviTable of contents11.2.3 Procedure .................................................................. 4412Application examples....................................................................... 4512.1Moisture & water damage ......................................................... 4512.1.1 General...................................................................... 4512.1.2 Figure ........................................................................ 4512.2Faulty contact in socket ............................................................ 4512.2.1 General...................................................................... 4512.2.2 Figure ........................................................................ 4512.3Oxidized socket...................................................................... 4612.3.1 General...................................................................... 4612.3.2 Figure ........................................................................ 4612.4Insulation deficiencies.............................................................. 4712.4.1 General...................................................................... 4712.4.2 Figure ........................................................................ 4712.5Draft .................................................................................... 4712.5.1 General...................................................................... 4712.5.2 Figure ........................................................................ 4713About FLIR Systems ........................................................................ 4913.1More than just an infrared camera .............................................. 5013.2Sharing our knowledge ............................................................ 5013.3Supporting our customers......................................................... 5114Definitions and laws ........................................................................ 5215Thermographic measurement techniques .......................................... 5415.1Introduction .......................................................................... 5415.2Emissivity.............................................................................. 5415.2.1 Finding the emissivity of a sample .................................... 5415.3Reflected apparent temperature................................................. 5815.4Distance ............................................................................... 5815.5Relative humidity .................................................................... 5815.6Other parameters.................................................................... 5816History of infrared technology........................................................... 5917Theory of thermography................................................................... 6217.1Introduction ........................................................................... 6217.2The electromagnetic spectrum................................................... 6217.3Blackbody radiation................................................................. 6217.3.1 Planck’s law ................................................................ 6317.3.2 Wien’s displacement law................................................ 6417.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann's law ................................................. 6517.3.4 Non-blackbody emitters................................................. 6617.4Infrared semi-transparent materials............................................. 6818The measurement formula................................................................ 6919Emissivity tables ............................................................................. 7319.1References............................................................................ 7319.2Tables .................................................................................. 73#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-USvii1Disclaimers1.1 Legal disclaimer1.7 PatentsAll products manufactured by FLIR Systems are warranted against defectivematerials and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the delivery dateof the original purchase, provided such products have been under normalstorage, use and service, and in accordance with FLIR Systems instruction.One or several of the following patents and/or design patents may apply tothe products and/or features. Additional pending patents and/or pending design patents may also apply.Uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by FLIR Systems arewarranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period of two(2) years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordancewith FLIR Systems instruction, and provided that the camera has been registered within 60 days of original purchase.Detectors for uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by FLIRSystems are warranted against defective materials and workmanship for aperiod of ten (10) years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, andin accordance with FLIR Systems instruction, and provided that the camerahas been registered within 60 days of original purchase.Products which are not manufactured by FLIR Systems but included in systems delivered by FLIR Systems to the original purchaser, carry the warranty,if any, of the particular supplier only. FLIR Systems has no responsibilitywhatsoever for such products.The warranty extends only to the original purchaser and is not transferable. Itis not applicable to any product which has been subjected to misuse, neglect,accident or abnormal conditions of operation. Expendable parts are excludedfrom the warranty.In the case of a defect in a product covered by this warranty the product mustnot be further used in order to prevent additional damage. The purchasershall promptly report any defect to FLIR Systems or this warranty will notapply.FLIR Systems will, at its option, repair or replace any such defective productfree of charge if, upon inspection, it proves to be defective in material or workmanship and provided that it is returned to FLIR Systems within the said oneyear period.000279476-0001; 000439161; 000499579-0001; 000653423; 000726344;000859020; 001106306-0001; 001707738; 001707746; 001707787;001776519; 001954074; 002021543; 002058180; 002249953; 002531178;0600574-8; 1144833; 1182246; 1182620; 1285345; 1299699; 1325808;1336775; 1391114; 1402918; 1404291; 1411581; 1415075; 1421497;1458284; 1678485; 1732314; 2106017; 2107799; 2381417; 3006596;3006597; 466540; 483782; 484155; 4889913; 5177595; 60122153.2;602004011681.5-08; 6707044; 68657; 7034300; 7110035; 7154093;7157705; 7237946; 7312822; 7332716; 7336823; 7544944; 7667198;7809258 B2; 7826736; 8,153,971; 8,823,803; 8,853,631; 8018649 B2;8212210 B2; 8289372; 8354639 B2; 8384783; 8520970; 8565547; 8595689;8599262; 8654239; 8680468; 8803093; D540838; D549758; D579475;D584755; D599,392; D615,113; D664,580; D664,581; D665,004; D665,440;D677298; D710,424 S; D718801; DI6702302-9; DI6903617-9; DI7002221-6;DI7002891-5; DI7002892-3; DI7005799-0; DM/057692; DM/061609; EP2115696 B1; EP2315433; SE 0700240-5; US 8340414 B2; ZL201330267619.5; ZL01823221.3; ZL01823226.4; ZL02331553.9;ZL02331554.7; ZL200480034894.0; ZL200530120994.2;ZL200610088759.5; ZL200630130114.4; ZL200730151141.4;ZL200730339504.7; ZL200820105768.8; ZL200830128581.2;ZL200880105236.4; ZL200880105769.2; ZL200930190061.9;ZL201030176127.1; ZL201030176130.3; ZL201030176157.2;ZL201030595931.3; ZL201130442354.9; ZL201230471744.3;ZL201230620731.8.1.8 EULA Terms•FLIR Systems has no other obligation or liability for defects than those setforth above.No other warranty is expressed or implied. FLIR Systems specifically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particularpurpose.•FLIR Systems shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental orconsequential loss or damage, whether based on contract, tort or any otherlegal theory.This warranty shall be governed by Swedish law.Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in connection with this warranty, shall be finally settled by arbitration in accordance with the Rules of theArbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. The place of arbitration shall be Stockholm. The language to be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be English.•You have acquired a device (“INFRARED CAMERA”) that includes software licensed by FLIR Systems AB from Microsoft Licensing, GP or itsaffiliates (“MS”). Those installed software products of MS origin, as wellas associated media, printed materials, and “online” or electronic documentation (“SOFTWARE”) are protected by international intellectualproperty laws and treaties. The SOFTWARE is licensed, not sold. Allrights reserved.IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THIS END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT(“EULA”), DO NOT USE THE DEVICE OR COPY THE SOFTWARE. INSTEAD, PROMPTLY CONTACT FLIR Systems AB FOR INSTRUCTIONS ON RETURN OF THE UNUSED DEVICE(S) FOR A REFUND.ANY USE OF THE SOFTWARE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TOUSE ON THE DEVICE, WILL CONSTITUTE YOUR AGREEMENT TOTHIS EULA (OR RATIFICATION OF ANY PREVIOUS CONSENT).GRANT OF SOFTWARE LICENSE. This EULA grants you the followinglicense:◦◦1.2 Usage statisticsFLIR Systems reserves the right to gather anonymous usage statistics to helpmaintain and improve the quality of our software and services.◦1.3 Changes to registryThe registry entry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\LmCompatibilityLevel will be automatically changed to level 2 ifthe FLIR Camera Monitor service detects a FLIR camera connected to thecomputer with a USB cable. The modification will only be executed if thecamera device implements a remote network service that supports networklogons.◦1.4 U.S. Government RegulationsThis product may be subject to U.S. Export Regulations. Please send any inquiries to exportquestions@flir.com.1.5 Copyright© 2016, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No parts of thesoftware including source code may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribedor translated into any language or computer language in any form or by anymeans, electronic, magnetic, optical, manual or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of FLIR Systems.The documentation must not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or transmitted to any electronic medium or machinereadable form without prior consent, in writing, from FLIR Systems.Names and marks appearing on the products herein are either registeredtrademarks or trademarks of FLIR Systems and/or its subsidiaries. All othertrademarks, trade names or company names referenced herein are used foridentification only and are the property of their respective owners.1.6 Quality assuranceThe Quality Management System under which these products are developedand manufactured has been certified in accordance with the ISO 9001standard.FLIR Systems is committed to a policy of continuous development; thereforewe reserve the right to make changes and improvements on any of the products without prior notice.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US◦◦◦You may use the SOFTWARE only on the DEVICE.NOT FAULT TOLERANT. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. FLIR Systems AB HAS INDEPENDENTLY DETERMINEDHOW TO USE THE SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND MS HASRELIED UPON FLIR Systems AB TO CONDUCT SUFFICIENTTESTING TO DETERMINE THAT THE SOFTWARE IS SUITABLEFOR SUCH USE.NO WARRANTIES FOR THE SOFTWARE. THE SOFTWARE isprovided “AS IS” and with all faults. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TOSATISFACTORY QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, ANDEFFORT (INCLUDING LACK OF NEGLIGENCE) IS WITH YOU.ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST INTERFERENCEWITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR AGAINSTINFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIESREGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE, THOSE WARRANTIES DO NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT BINDINGON, MS.No Liability for Certain Damages. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BYLAW, MS SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY INDIRECT,SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGESARISING FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. THIS LIMITATION SHALLAPPLY EVEN IF ANY REMEDY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL MS BE LIABLE FOR ANYAMOUNT IN EXCESS OF U.S. TWO HUNDRED FIFTY DOLLARS (U.S.$250.00).Limitations on Reverse Engineering, Decompilation, and Disassembly. You may not reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble the SOFTWARE, except and only to the extent that suchactivity is expressly permitted by applicable law notwithstandingthis limitation.SOFTWARE TRANSFER ALLOWED BUT WITH RESTRICTIONS. You may permanently transfer rights under this EULA onlyas part of a permanent sale or transfer of the Device, and only ifthe recipient agrees to this EULA. If the SOFTWARE is an upgrade, any transfer must also include all prior versions of theSOFTWARE.EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You acknowledge that SOFTWARE issubject to U.S. export jurisdiction. You agree to comply with all applicable international and national laws that apply to the SOFTWARE, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, aswell as end-user, end-use and destination restrictions issued by U.S. and other governments. For additional information see http://www.microsoft.com/exporting/.1.9 EULA TermsQt4 Core and Qt4 GUI, Copyright ©2013 Nokia Corporation and FLIR Systems AB. This Qt library is a free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as publishedby the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at youroption) any later version. This library is distributed in the hope that it will beuseful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty ofMERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See theGNU Lesser General Public License, http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.1Disclaimershtml. The source code for the libraries Qt4 Core and Qt4 GUI may be requested from FLIR Systems AB.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US2Safety informationWARNINGApplicability: Class B digital devices.This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection againstharmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radiofrequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmfulinterference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur ina particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:••••Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver isconnected.Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.WARNINGApplicability: Digital devices subject to 15.19/RSS-210.NOTICE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules and with RSS-210 of Industry Canada.Operation is subject to the following two conditions:1.2.this device may not cause harmful interference, andthis device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesiredoperation.WARNINGApplicability: Digital devices subject to 15.21.NOTICE: Changes or modifications made to this equipment not expressly approved by FLIR Systemsmay void the FCC authorization to operate this equipment.WARNINGApplicability: Digital devices subject to 2.1091/2.1093/OET Bulletin 65.Radiofrequency radiation exposure Information: The radiated output power of the device is belowthe FCC/IC radio frequency exposure limits. Nevertheless, the device shall be used in such a mannerthat the potential for human contact during normal operation is minimized.WARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not disassemble or do a modification to the battery. The battery contains safety and protection devices which, if damage occurs, can cause the battery to become hot, or cause an explosion or an ignition.WARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.If there is a leak from the battery and you get the fluid in your eyes, do not rub your eyes. Flush well withwater and immediately get medical care. The battery fluid can cause injury to your eyes if you do not dothis.WARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not continue to charge the battery if it does not become charged in the specified charging time. Ifyou continue to charge the battery, it can become hot and cause an explosion or ignition. Injury to persons can occur.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US2Safety informationWARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Only use the correct equipment to remove the electrical power from the battery. If you do not use thecorrect equipment, you can decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery. If you do not usethe correct equipment, an incorrect flow of current to the battery can occur. This can cause the batteryto become hot, or cause an explosion. Injury to persons can occur.WARNINGMake sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid. The liquids can be dangerous. Injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONDo not point the infrared camera (with or without the lens cover) at strong energy sources, for example,devices that cause laser radiation, or the sun. This can have an unwanted effect on the accuracy of thecamera. It can also cause damage to the detector in the camera.CAUTIONDo not use the camera in temperatures more than +50°C (+122°F), unless other information is specifiedin the user documentation or technical data. High temperatures can cause damage to the camera.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not attach the batteries directly to a car’s cigarette lighter socket, unless FLIR Systems supplies aspecific adapter to connect the batteries to a cigarette lighter socket. Damage to the batteries canoccur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not connect the positive terminal and the negative terminal of the battery to each other with a metalobject (such as wire). Damage to the batteries can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not get water or salt water on the battery, or permit the battery to become wet. Damage to the batteries can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not make holes in the battery with objects. Damage to the battery can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not hit the battery with a hammer. Damage to the battery can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put your foot on the battery, hit it or cause shocks to it. Damage to the battery can occur.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US2Safety informationCAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put the batteries in or near a fire, or into direct sunlight. When the battery becomes hot, the builtin safety equipment becomes energized and can stop the battery charging procedure. If the battery becomes hot, damage can occur to the safety equipment and this can cause more heat, damage or ignition of the battery.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put the battery on a fire or increase the temperature of the battery with heat. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put the battery on or near fires, stoves, or other high-temperature locations. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not solder directly onto the battery. Damage to the battery can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not use the battery if, when you use, charge, or put the battery in storage, there is an unusual smellfrom the battery, the battery feels hot, changes color, changes shape, or is in an unusual condition.Speak with your sales office if one or more of these problems occurs. Damage to the battery and injuryto persons can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Only use a specified battery charger when you charge the battery. Damage to the battery can occur ifyou do not do this.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Only use a specified battery for the camera. Damage to the camera and the battery can occur if you donot do this.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.The temperature range through which you can charge the battery is +10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F).If you charge the battery at temperatures out of this range, it can cause the battery to become hot or tobreak. It can also decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.The temperature range through which you can remove the electrical power from the battery is -15°C to+50°C (+5°F to +122°F), unless other information is specified in the user documentation or technicaldata. If you operate the battery out of this temperature range, it can decrease the performance or the lifecycle of the battery.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US2Safety informationCAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.When the battery is worn, apply insulation to the terminals with adhesive tape or equivalent materialsbefore you discard it. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur if you do not do this.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Remove any water or moisture on the battery before you install it. Damage to the battery can occur ifyou do not do this.CAUTIONDo not apply solvents or equivalent liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONBe careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has an anti-reflective coating which is easily damaged. Damage to the infrared lens can occur.CAUTIONDo not use too much force to clean the infrared lens. This can cause damage to the anti-reflectivecoating.Note The encapsulation rating is only applicable when all the openings on the cameraare sealed with their correct covers, hatches, or caps. This includes the compartmentsfor data storage, batteries, and connectors.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US3Notice to user3.1User-to-user forumsExchange ideas, problems, and infrared solutions with fellow thermographers around theworld in our user-to-user forums. To go to the forums, visit:http://forum.infraredtraining.com/3.2CalibrationWe recommend that you send in the camera for calibration once a year. Contact your local sales office for instructions on where to send the camera.3.3AccuracyFor very accurate results, we recommend that you wait 5 minutes after you have startedthe camera before measuring a temperature.3.4Disposal of electronic wasteAs with most electronic products, this equipment must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly way, and in accordance with existing regulations for electronic waste.Please contact your FLIR Systems representative for more details.3.5TrainingTo read about infrared training, visit:• http://www.infraredtraining.com• http://www.irtraining.com• http://www.irtraining.eu3.6Documentation updatesOur manuals are updated several times per year, and we also issue product-critical notifications of changes on a regular basis.To access the latest manuals, translations of manuals, and notifications, go to the Download tab at:http://support.flir.comIt only takes a few minutes to register online. In the download area you will also find thelatest releases of manuals for our other products, as well as manuals for our historicaland obsolete products.3.7Important note about this manualFLIR Systems issues generic manuals that cover several cameras within a model line.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US3Notice to userThis means that this manual may contain descriptions and explanations that do not applyto your particular camera model.3.8Note about authoritative versionsThe authoritative version of this publication is English. In the event of divergences due totranslation errors, the English text has precedence.Any late changes are first implemented in English.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4Customer help4.1GeneralFor customer help, visit:http://support.flir.com4.2Submitting a questionTo submit a question to the customer help team, you must be a registered user. It onlytakes a few minutes to register online. If you only want to search the knowledgebase forexisting questions and answers, you do not need to be a registered user.When you want to submit a question, make sure that you have the following informationto hand:• The camera model• The camera serial number• The communication protocol, or method, between the camera and your device (for example, SD card reader, HDMI, Ethernet, USB, or FireWire)• Device type (PC/Mac/iPhone/iPad/Android device, etc.)• Version of any programs from FLIR Systems#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4Customer help• Full name, publication number, and revision number of the manual4.3DownloadsOn the customer help site you can also download the following, when applicable for theproduct:•••••••••Firmware updates for your infrared camera.Program updates for your PC/Mac software.Freeware and evaluation versions of PC/Mac software.User documentation for current, obsolete, and historical products.Mechanical drawings (in *.dxf and *.pdf format).Cad data models (in *.stp format).Application stories.Technical datasheets.Product catalogs.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US105Quick Start Guide5.1ProcedureFollow this procedure:1.2.3.4.Charge the battery for approximately 1.5 hours, using the FLIR power supply.Push the On/off buttonto turn on the camera.Aim the camera toward your target of interest.Push the Save button to save an image.(Optional steps)5. Download FLIR Tools from http://support.flir.com/tools.6. Install FLIR Tools on your computer.7. Start FLIR Tools.8. Connect the camera to your computer, using the USB cable.9. Import the images into FLIR Tools.10. Create a PDF report in FLIR Tools.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US116Description6.11.2.3.4.View from the frontCamera lamp.Digital camera lens.Infrared lens.Attachment point.6.2View from the rear1. On/off button.2. Save button.3. Camera screen.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US126Description6.3ConnectorThe purpose of this USB Micro-B connector is the following:• Charging the battery using the FLIR power supply.• Moving images from the camera to a computer for further analysis in FLIR Tools.Note6.41.2.3.4.5.6.Install FLIR Tools on your computer before you move the images.Screen elementsMain menu toolbar.Submenu toolbar.Result table.Status icons.Temperature scale.Spotmeter.6.5Auto-orientationThe camera has an auto-orientation feature, which means that the camera automaticallyadjusts the measurement information on the display to the vertical or horizontal positionof the camera.Note The auto-orientation feature is enabled by a setting. Select Settings > Device settings > Auto orientation > On.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US136Description6.6Navigating the menu systemThe camera has a touch screen. You can use your index finger or a stylus pen speciallydesigned for capacitive touch usage to navigate the menu system.Tap the camera screen to bring up the menu system.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US147Operation7.1Charging the batteryWARNINGFor equipment with plugs:Make sure that you install the socket-outlet near the equipment and that it is easy to get access to.Follow this procedure:1. Connect the FLIR power supply to a wall outlet.2. Connect the power supply cable to the USB connector on the camera.7.2Turning on and turning off the camera• Push the On/off buttonto turn on the camera.• Push and hold the On/off buttonuntil the screen goes off (for less than 5 seconds) to put the camera in standby mode. The camera then automatically turns offafter 2 hours.• Push and hold the On/off buttonfor more than 5 seconds to turn off thecamera.7.3Saving an image7.3.1 GeneralYou can save images to the internal camera memory.The camera saves both a thermal image and a visual image at the same time.7.3.2 Image capacityApproximately 500 images can be saved to the internal camera memory.7.3.3 Naming conventionThe naming convention for images is FLIRxxxx.jpg, where xxxx is a unique counter.7.3.4 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. To save an image, push the Save button.7.4Recalling an image7.4.1 GeneralWhen you save an image, it is stored in the internal camera memory. To display the image again, you can recall it from the internal camera memory.7.4.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Images. This displays an image in the image archive.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US157Operation3. To view the previous or next image, do one of the following:• Swipe left or right.• Tap the left arrowor the right arrow4. To switch between a thermal image and a visual image, swipe up or down.5. Tap the camera screen. This displays a toolbar.• Select Full screennormal views.or Exit full screento switch between the full screen and• Select Thumbnailsto display the thumbnail overview. To scroll between thethumbnails, swipe up/down. To display an image, tap its thumbnail.• Select Delete• Select Information• Select Camera7.5to delete the image.to display information about the image.to return to live mode.Deleting an image7.5.1 GeneralYou can delete an image from the internal camera memory.7.5.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Images. This displays an image in the image archive.3. To display the previous or next image, do one of the following:• Swipe left or right.• Tap the left arrowor the right arrow4. When the image you want to delete is displayed, tap the camera screen. This displays a toolbar.5. On the toolbar, select Delete. This displays a dialog box.6. In the dialog box, select Delete.7. To return to live mode, tap the camera screen and select Camera7.6Deleting all images7.6.1 GeneralYou can delete all images from the internal camera memory.7.6.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, select Device settings. This displays a dialog box.4. In the dialog box, select Reset options. This displays a dialog box.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US167Operation5. In the dialog box, select Delete all saved images. This displays a dialog box.6. In the dialog box, select Delete.7. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrowSave button once.repeatedly. You can also push the7.7 Measuring a temperature using aspotmeter7.7.1 GeneralYou can measure a temperature using a spotmeter. This will display the temperature atthe position of the spotmeter on the screen.7.7.1.1 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Measurement. This displays a submenu toolbar.3. On the submenu toolbar, select Center spotThe temperature at the position of the spotmeter will now be displayed in the top leftcorner of the screen.7.8Hiding measurement tools7.8.1 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Measurement. This displays a submenu toolbar.3. On the submenu toolbar, select No measurements7.9Changing the color palette7.9.1 GeneralYou can change the color palette that the camera uses to display different temperatures.A different palette can make it easier to analyze an image.7.9.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Color. This displays a submenu toolbar.3. On the submenu toolbar, select the type of color palette:••••Iron.Rainbow.Rainbow HC.Gray.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US177Operation7.10 Changing the image mode7.10.1GeneralThe camera captures both thermal and visual images at the same time. By your choiceof image mode, you select which type of image to display on the screen.The camera supports the following image modes:• Thermal MSX (Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging): The camera displays an infrared image where the edges of the objects are enhanced with visual image details.• Thermal: The camera displays a fully infrared image.• Digital camera: The camera displays only the visual image captured by the digitalcamera.To display a good fusion image (Thermal MSX mode), the camera must make adjustments to compensate for the small difference in position between the digital camera lensand the infrared lens. To adjust the image accurately, the camera requires the alignmentdistance (i.e., the distance to the object).7.10.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Image mode. This displays a submenu toolbar.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US187Operation3. On the submenu toolbar, select one of the following:• Thermal MSX• Thermal• Digital camera4. If you have selected the Thermal MSX mode, also set the distance to the object bydoing the following:• On the submenu toolbar, select Alignment distancebox.. This displays a dialog• In the dialog box, select the distance to the object.7.11 Changing the temperature scale mode7.11.1GeneralThe camera can operate in two different temperature scale modes:• Auto mode: In this mode, the camera is continuously auto-adjusted for the best imagebrightness and contrast.• Lock mode: In this mode, the camera locks the temperature span and the temperaturelevel.7.11.2When to use Lock modeA typical situation where you would use Lock mode is when looking for temperatureanomalies in two items with a similar design or construction.For example, you have two cables, and you suspect that one is overheated. With thecamera in Auto mode, direct the camera toward the cable that has a normal temperature,and then activate Lock mode. When you then direct the camera, in Lock mode, towardthe suspected overheated cable, that cable will appear in a lighter color in the thermal image if its temperature is higher than the first cable.If you instead use Auto mode, the color for the two items might appear the same despitetheir temperature being different.7.11.3ProcedureTo go between Auto mode and Lock mode, tap the top or bottom temperature value inthe temperature scale.A gray padlock icon indicates that Lock mode is active.7.12 Setting the emissivity7.12.1GeneralTo measure temperatures accurately, the camera must be aware of the type of surfaceyou are measuring. You can choose between the following surface properties:• Matt.• Semi-matt.• Semi-glossy.As an alternative, you can set a custom emissivity value.For more information about emissivity, see section 15 Thermographic measurementtechniques, page 54.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US197Operation7.12.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2.3.4.5.Select Settings. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select one of the following:••••Matt.Semi-matt.Semi-glossy.Custom value. This displays a dialog box where you can set a value.6. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrowSave button once.repeatedly. You can also push the7.13 Changing the reflected apparenttemperature7.13.1GeneralThis parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected by the object. If theemissivity is low and the object temperature significantly different from that of the reflected temperature, it will be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparenttemperature correctly.For more information about the reflected apparent temperature, see section 15 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 54.7.13.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.4. In the dialog box, select Reflected temperature. This displays a dialog box where youcan set a value.5. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrowSave button once.repeatedly. You can also push the7.14 Changing the distance7.14.1GeneralThe distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. Thisparameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:• That radiation from the target is absorbed by the atmosphere between the object andthe camera.• That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.For more information, see section 15 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 54.7.14.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US207Operation2. Select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.4. In the dialog box, select Distance. This displays a dialog box where you can set avalue.5. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrowSave button once.repeatedly. You can also push the7.15 Performing a non-uniformity correction7.15.1What is a non-uniformity correction?A non-uniformity correction (or NUC) is an image correction carried out by the camerasoftware to compensate for different sensitivities of detector elements and other opticaland geometrical disturbances1.7.15.2When to perform a non-uniformity correctionThe non-uniformity correction process should be carried out whenever the output imagebecomes spatially noisy. The output can become spatially noisy when the ambient temperature changes (such as from indoors to outdoors operation, and vice versa).7.15.3ProcedureTo perform a non-uniformity correction, tap and hold theappears on the screen.icon. The text Calibrating...7.16 Using the camera lamp7.16.1GeneralYou can use the camera lamp as a flashlight, or as a flash when taking an image.7.16.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Lamp3. Tap one of the following:• Flash (to use the lamp as a flash when taking an image).• On (to turn on the lamp and use it as a flashlight).• Off (to turn off the lamp).7.17 Configuring Wi-FiDepending on your camera configuration, you can connect the camera to a wireless localarea network (WLAN) using Wi-Fi, or let the camera provide Wi-Fi access to anotherdevice.You can connect the camera in two different ways:• Most common use: Setting up a peer-to-peer connection (also called an ad hoc orP2P connection). This method is primarily used with other devices, e.g., an iPhone oriPad.• Less common use: Connecting the camera to a WLAN.1. Definition from the imminent international adoption of DIN 54190-3 (Non-destructive testing – Thermographictesting – Part 3: Terms and definitions).#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US217Operation7.17.1Setting up a peer-to-peer connection (most common use)Follow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Settings3.4.5.6.. This displays a dialog box.Select Device settings.Select Wi-Fi.Select Share.(Optional step.) To display and change the parameters, select Settings.• To change the channel (the channel that the camera is broadcasting on), selectChannel.• To activate WEP (encryption algorithm), select WEP. This will check the WEPcheck box.• To change the WEP password, select Password.Note These parameters are set for your camera’s network. They will be used by theexternal device to connect that device to the network.7.17.2use)Connecting the camera to a wireless local area network (less commonFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Settings3.4.5.6.7.. This displays a dialog box.Select Device settings.Select Wi-Fi.Select Connect to network.To display a list of the available networks, select Networks.Select one of the available networks.Password-protected networks are indicated with a padlock icon, and for these youwill need to enter a password.Note Some networks do not broadcast their existence. To connect to such a network,select Add network... and set all parameters manually according to that network.7.18 Changing the settings7.18.1GeneralYou can change a variety of settings for the camera.The Settings menu includes the following:• Measurement parameters.• Save options.• Device settings.7.18.1.1Measurement parameters• Emissivity.• Reflected temperature.• Distance.7.18.1.2Save options• Photo as separate JPEG: When this menu command is selected, the digital photograph from the visual camera is saved at its full field of view as a separate JPEG image. It may be necessary to activate this option if you are not using the FLIR Toolssoftware.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US227Operation7.18.1.3Device settings• Language, time & units:◦◦◦◦◦Language.Temperature unit.Distance unit.Date & time.Date & time format.• Reset options:◦ Reset default camera mode.◦ Reset device settings to factory default.◦ Delete all saved images.••••Auto power off.Auto orientation.Display intensity.Camera information: This menu command displays various items of information aboutthe camera, such as the model, serial number, and software version.7.18.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Tap the camera screen. This displays the main menu toolbar.2. Select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, tap the setting that you want to change.4. To return to live mode, tap the upper left arrowSave button once.repeatedly. You can also push the7.19 Updating the camera7.19.1GeneralTo take advantage of our latest camera firmware, it is important that you keep your camera updated. You update your camera using FLIR Tools.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US237Operation7.19.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1.2.3.4.Start FLIR Tools.Start the camera.Connect the camera to the computer using the USB cable.FLIR Tools displays a welcome screen when the camera is identified. On the welcome screen, click Check for updates.You can also click Check for updates on the Help menu in FLIR Tools.5. Follow the on-screen instructions.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US248Technical dataTable of contents8.1Online field-of-view calculator........................................................... 258.2Note about technical data................................................................. 258.3Note about authoritative versions...................................................... 258.4FLIR C2 .......................................................................................... 268.5FLIR C2 Educational Kit.................................................................... 298.6FLIR C3 (incl. Wi-Fi) ......................................................................... 328.7FLIR C3 (incl. Wi-Fi) Educational Kit................................................... 368.1Online field-of-view calculatorPlease visit http://support.flir.com and click the photo of the camera series for field-ofview tables for all lens–camera combinations.8.2Note about technical dataFLIR Systems reserves the right to change specifications at any time without prior notice.Please check http://support.flir.com for latest changes.8.3Note about authoritative versionsThe authoritative version of this publication is English. In the event of divergences due totranslation errors, the English text has precedence.Any late changes are first implemented in English.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US258Technical data8.4FLIR C2P/N: 72001-0101Rev.: 40418Imaging and optical dataNETD100 mKField of view41° × 31°Minimum focus distance••Thermal: 0.15 m (0.49 ft.)MSX: 1.0 m (3.3 ft.)Focal length1.54 mm (0.061 in.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)11 mradF-number1.1Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataFocal Plane ArrayUncooled microbolometerSpectral range7.5–14 µmDetector pitch17 µmIR sensor size80 × 60Image presentationDisplay (color)••3.0 in.320 × 240 pixelsDisplay, aspect ratio4:3Auto orientationYesTouch screenYes, capacitiveImage adjustment (alignment calibration)YesImage presentation modesInfrared imageYesVisual imageYesMSXYesGalleryYesMeasurementObject temperature range–10°C to +150°C (14 to 302°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or 2%, whichever is greater, at 25°C (77°F) nominal.Measurement analysisSpotmeterOn/offEmissivity correctionYes; matt/semi-matt/semi-glossy + custom valueMeasurements correction#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US••EmissivityReflected apparent temperature268Technical dataSet-upColor palettes••••IronRainbowRainbow HCGraySet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsLanguagesArabic, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese,Russian, Simpl. Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Trad.Chinese, Turkish.LampOutput power0.85 WField of view60°Service functionsCamera software updateUsing FLIR ToolsStorage of imagesStorage mediaImage file formatInternal memory store at least 500 sets of images••Standard JPEG14-bit measurement data includedVideo streamingNon-radiometric IR video streamingYesVisual video streamingYesDigital cameraDigital camera640 × 480 pixelsDigital camera, focusFixed focusData communication interfacesUSB, connector typeUSB Micro-B: Data transfer to and from PCUSB, standardUSB 2.0Power systemBattery typeRechargeable Li-ion polymer batteryBattery voltage3.7 VBattery operating time2hCharging systemCharged inside the cameraCharging time1.5 hCharging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)External power operationPower management••AC adapter, 90–260 VAC input5 V output to cameraAutomatic shut-downEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–10°C to +50°C (14 to 122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40 to 158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity +25°Cto +40°C (+77°F to +104°F) / 2 cycles#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US278Technical dataEnvironmental dataRelative humidityEMC95% relative humidity +25°C to +40°C (+77°F to+104°F) non condensing••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class BMagnetic fieldsEN 61000-4-8Battery regulationsUL 1642EncapsulationCamera housing and lens: IP 40 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Physical dataWeight (incl. Battery)0.13 kg (0.29 lb.)Size (L × W × H)125 × 80 × 24 mm (4.9 × 3.1 × 0.94 in.)Tripod mountingNoHousing materialColor••PC and ABS, partially covered with TPEAluminumBlack and grayShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box•••••Infrared cameraLanyardPower supply/charger with EU, UK, US, CNand Australian plugsPrinted documentationUSB cablePackaging, weight0.53 kg (1.17 lb.)Packaging, size175 × 115 × 75 mm (6.9 × 4.5 × 3.0 in.)EAN-134743254001961UPC-12845188010614Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:•••••••T198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT198584; FLIR ToolsT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US288Technical data8.5FLIR C2 Educational KitP/N: 72002-0202Rev.: 40418NOTEOnly educational institutions are eligible for purchasing this product.Imaging and optical dataNETD100 mKField of view41° × 31°Minimum focus distance••Thermal: 0.15 m (0.49 ft.)MSX: 1.0 m (3.3 ft.)Focal length1.54 mm (0.061 in.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)11 mradF-number1.1Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataFocal Plane ArrayUncooled microbolometerSpectral range7.5–14 µmDetector pitch17 µmIR sensor size80 × 60Image presentationDisplay (color)••3.0 in.320 × 240 pixelsDisplay, aspect ratio4:3Auto orientationYesTouch screenYes, capacitiveImage adjustment (alignment calibration)YesImage presentation modesInfrared imageYesVisual imageYesMSXYesGalleryYesMeasurementObject temperature range–10°C to +150°C (14 to 302°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or 2%, whichever is greater, at 25°C (77°F) nominal.Measurement analysisSpotmeterOn/offEmissivity correctionYes; matt/semi-matt/semi-glossy + custom valueMeasurements correction#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US••EmissivityReflected apparent temperature298Technical dataSet-upColor palettes••••IronRainbowRainbow HCGraySet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsLanguagesArabic, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese,Russian, Simpl. Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Trad.Chinese, Turkish.LampOutput power0.85 WField of view60°Service functionsCamera software updateUsing FLIR ToolsStorage of imagesStorage mediaImage file formatInternal memory store at least 500 sets of images••Standard JPEG14-bit measurement data includedVideo streamingNon-radiometric IR video streamingYesVisual video streamingYesDigital cameraDigital camera640 × 480 pixelsDigital camera, focusFixed focusData communication interfacesUSB, connector typeUSB Micro-B: Data transfer to and from PCUSB, standardUSB 2.0Power systemBattery typeRechargeable Li-ion polymer batteryBattery voltage3.7 VBattery operating time2hCharging systemCharged inside the cameraCharging time1.5 hCharging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)External power operationPower management••AC adapter, 90–260 VAC input5 V output to cameraAutomatic shut-downEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–10°C to +50°C (14 to 122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40 to 158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity +25°Cto +40°C (+77°F to +104°F) / 2 cycles#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US308Technical dataEnvironmental dataRelative humidityEMC95% relative humidity +25°C to +40°C (+77°F to+104°F) non condensing••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class BMagnetic fieldsEN 61000-4-8Battery regulationsUL 1642EncapsulationCamera housing and lens: IP 40 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Physical dataWeight (incl. Battery)0.13 kg (0.29 lb.)Size (L × W × H)125 × 80 × 24 mm (4.9 × 3.1 × 0.94 in.)Tripod mountingYesHousing materialColor••PC and ABS, partially covered with TPEAluminumBlack and grayShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box•••••••Infrared cameraLanyardPower supply/charger with EU, UK, US, CNand Australian plugsPrinted documentationTripod mountFLIR C2 educational kit card with downloadlinks for FLIR Tools+, FLIR ResearchIR Standard (incl. printed license key), and educationalresources.USB cablePackaging, weight0.53 kg (1.17 lb.)Packaging, size175 × 115 × 75 mm (6.9 × 4.5 × 3.0 in.)EAN-134743254002067UPC-12845188011376Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••T198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT198584; FLIR ToolsT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199012; FLIR ResearchIR Standard 4 (printed license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US318Technical data8.6FLIR C3 (incl. Wi-Fi)P/N: 72003-0303Rev.: 40418Imaging and optical dataNETD100 mKField of view41° × 31°Minimum focus distance••Thermal: 0.15 m (0.49 ft.)MSX: 1.0 m (3.3 ft.)Focal length1.54 mm (0.061 in.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)11 mradF-number1.1Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataFocal Plane ArrayUncooled microbolometerSpectral range7.5–14 µmDetector pitch17 µmIR sensor size80 × 60Image presentationDisplay (color)••3.0 in.320 × 240 pixelsDisplay, aspect ratio4:3Auto orientationYesTouch screenYes, capacitiveImage adjustment (alignment calibration)YesImage presentation modesInfrared imageYesVisual imageYesMSXYesGalleryYesPicture in PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–10°C to +150°C (14 to 302°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or 2%, whichever is greater, at 25°C (77°F) nominal.Measurement analysisSpotmeterOn/offAreaBox with max./min.Emissivity correctionYes; matt/semi-matt/semi-glossy + custom valueMeasurements correction#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US••EmissivityReflected apparent temperature328Technical dataSet-upColor palettes••••IronRainbowRainbow HCGraySet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsLanguagesArabic, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese,Russian, Simpl. Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Trad.Chinese, Turkish.LampOutput power0.85 WField of view60°Service functionsCamera software updateUsing FLIR ToolsStorage of imagesStorage mediaImage file formatInternal memory store at least 500 sets of images••Standard JPEG14-bit measurement data includedVideo streamingNon-radiometric IR video streamingYesVisual video streamingYesDigital cameraDigital camera640 × 480 pixelsDigital camera, focusFixed focusData communication interfacesWi-FiPeer-to-peer (ad hoc) or infrastructure (network)USB, connector typeUSB Micro-B: Data transfer to and from PCUSB, standardUSB 2.0RadioWi-Fi••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmPower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li-ion polymer batteryBattery voltage3.7 VBattery operating time2hCharging systemCharged inside the cameraCharging time1.5 hCharging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US338Technical dataPower systemExternal power operationPower management••AC adapter, 90–260 VAC input5 V output to cameraAutomatic shut-downEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–10°C to +50°C (14 to 122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40 to 158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity +25°Cto +40°C (+77°F to +104°F) / 2 cyclesRelative humidity95% relative humidity +25°C to +40°C (+77°F to+104°F) non condensingEMCRadio spectrumMagnetic fields••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B•••ETSI EN 300 328FCC 47 CSR Part 15RSS-247 Issue 1EN 61000-4-8Battery regulationsUL 1642EncapsulationCamera housing and lens: IP 40 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)Physical dataWeight (incl. Battery)0.13 kg (0.29 lb.)Size (L × W × H)125 × 80 × 24 mm (4.9 × 3.1 × 0.94 in.)Tripod mountingNoHousing materialColor••PC and ABS, partially covered with TPEAluminumBlack and grayShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box•••••••Infrared cameraLanyardPouchPower supply/charger with EU, UK, US, CNand Australian plugsPrinted documentationTripod mountUSB cablePackaging, weightTBDPackaging, size175 × 110 × 105 mm (6.9 × 4.3 × 4.1 in.)EAN-134743254002845UPC-12845188014094Country of originEstonia#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US348Technical dataSupplies & accessories:•••••••T198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT198584; FLIR ToolsT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US358Technical data8.7FLIR C3 (incl. Wi-Fi) Educational KitP/N: 72003-0404Rev.: 40418NOTEOnly educational institutions are eligible for purchasing this product.Imaging and optical dataNETD100 mKField of view41° × 31°Minimum focus distance••Thermal: 0.15 m (0.49 ft.)MSX: 1.0 m (3.3 ft.)Focal length1.54 mm (0.061 in.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)11 mradF-number1.1Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataFocal Plane ArrayUncooled microbolometerSpectral range7.5–14 µmDetector pitch17 µmIR sensor size80 × 60Image presentationDisplay (color)••3.0 in.320 × 240 pixelsDisplay, aspect ratio4:3Auto orientationYesTouch screenYes, capacitiveImage adjustment (alignment calibration)YesImage presentation modesInfrared imageYesVisual imageYesMSXYesGalleryYesPicture in PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–10°C to +150°C (14 to 302°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or 2%, whichever is greater, at 25°C (77°F) nominal.Measurement analysisSpotmeterOn/offAreaBox with max./min.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US368Technical dataMeasurement analysisEmissivity correctionMeasurements correctionYes; matt/semi-matt/semi-glossy + custom value••EmissivityReflected apparent temperature••••IronRainbowRainbow HCGraySet-upColor palettesSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsLanguagesArabic, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese,Russian, Simpl. Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Trad.Chinese, Turkish.LampOutput power0.85 WField of view60°Service functionsCamera software updateUsing FLIR ToolsStorage of imagesStorage mediaImage file formatInternal memory store at least 500 sets of images••Standard JPEG14-bit measurement data includedVideo streamingNon-radiometric IR video streamingYesVisual video streamingYesDigital cameraDigital camera640 × 480 pixelsDigital camera, focusFixed focusData communication interfacesWi-FiPeer-to-peer (ad hoc) or infrastructure (network)USB, connector typeUSB Micro-B: Data transfer to and from PCUSB, standardUSB 2.0RadioWi-Fi••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmPower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li-ion polymer batteryBattery voltage3.7 VBattery operating time2hCharging systemCharged inside the camera#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US378Technical dataPower systemCharging time1.5 hCharging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)External power operationPower management••AC adapter, 90–260 VAC input5 V output to cameraAutomatic shut-downEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–10°C to +50°C (14 to 122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40 to 158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity +25°Cto +40°C (+77°F to +104°F) / 2 cyclesRelative humidity95% relative humidity +25°C to +40°C (+77°F to+104°F) non condensingEMCRadio spectrum••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B•••ETSI EN 300 328FCC 47 CSR Part 15RSS-247 Issue 1Magnetic fieldsEN 61000-4-8Battery regulationsUL 1642EncapsulationCamera housing and lens: IP 40 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)Physical dataWeight (incl. Battery)0.13 kg (0.29 lb.)Size (L × W × H)125 × 80 × 24 mm (4.9 × 3.1 × 0.94 in.)Tripod mountingNoHousing materialColor••PC and ABS, partially covered with TPEAluminumBlack and grayShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••••FLIR C3 educational kit card with downloadlinks for FLIR Tools+, FLIR ResearchIR Standard (incl. printed license key), and educationalresources.Infrared cameraLanyardPouchPower supply/charger with EU, UK, US, CNand Australian plugsPrinted documentationTripod mountUSB cablePackaging, weightTBDPackaging, size175 × 110 × 105 mm (6.9 × 4.3 × 4.1 in.)#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US388Technical dataShipping informationEAN-134743254002852UPC-12845188014100Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:•••••••T198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT198584; FLIR ToolsT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US399Mechanical drawings[See next page]#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US40© 2012, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this drawing may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without written permission from FLIR Systems, Inc. Specifications subject to change without further notice. Dimensional data is based on nominal values. Products may be subject to regional market considerations. License procedures may apply.Product may be subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.com with any questions. Diversion contrary to US law is prohibited.Camera with build-in IR lens f=1,54mm1,3133,4 mm1,7845,3 mm0,4311 mmIR Optical axisVisual Optical axis0,9123,1 mm0,5814,8 mm4,9124,5mmMABRCheckDrawn byR&D ThermographyBasic Dimensions Flir Cx2014-12-18DenominationModified1,0225,9 mmOptical axis3,178,7 mm1:1T128439Drawing No.A2SizeScale101(1)SizeSheet10CE Declaration of conformity[See next page]#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4211Cleaning the camera11.1 Camera housing, cables, and other items11.1.1LiquidsUse one of these liquids:• Warm water• A weak detergent solution11.1.2EquipmentA soft cloth11.1.3ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Soak the cloth in the liquid.2. Twist the cloth to remove excess liquid.3. Clean the part with the cloth.CAUTIONDo not apply solvents or similar liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. This can causedamage.11.2 Infrared lens11.2.1LiquidsUse one of these liquids:• A commercial lens cleaning liquid with more than 30% isopropyl alcohol.• 96% ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH).11.2.2EquipmentCotton wool11.2.3ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Soak the cotton wool in the liquid.2. Twist the cotton wool to remove excess liquid.3. Clean the lens one time only and discard the cotton wool.WARNINGMake sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid: the liquids can be dangerous.CAUTION••Be careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has a delicate anti-reflective coating.Do not clean the infrared lens too vigorously. This can damage the anti-reflective coating.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4412Application examples12.1 Moisture & water damage12.1.1GeneralIt is often possible to detect moisture and water damage in a house by using an infraredcamera. This is partly because the damaged area has a different heat conduction property and partly because it has a different thermal capacity to store heat than the surrounding material.Many factors can come into play as to how moisture or water damage will appear in aninfrared image.For example, heating and cooling of these parts takes place at different rates dependingon the material and the time of day. For this reason, it is important that other methods areused as well to check for moisture or water damage.12.1.2FigureThe image below shows extensive water damage on an external wall where the waterhas penetrated the outer facing because of an incorrectly installed window ledge.12.2 Faulty contact in socket12.2.1GeneralDepending on the type of connection a socket has, an improperly connected wire can result in local temperature increase. This temperature increase is caused by the reducedcontact area between the connection point of the incoming wire and the socket , and canresult in an electrical fire.A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. Forthis reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between wire andsocket, or from difference in load.12.2.2FigureThe image below shows a connection of a cable to a socket where improper contact inthe connection has resulted in local temperature increase.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4512Application examples12.3 Oxidized socket12.3.1GeneralDepending on the type of socket and the environment in which the socket is installed, oxides may occur on the socket's contact surfaces. These oxides can lead to locally increased resistance when the socket is loaded, which can be seen in an infrared imageas local temperature increase.A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. Forthis reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between a wire andsocket, or from difference in load.12.3.2FigureThe image below shows a series of fuses where one fuse has a raised temperature onthe contact surfaces against the fuse holder. Because of the fuse holder’s blank metal,the temperature increase is not visible there, while it is visible on the fuse’s ceramicmaterial.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4612Application examples12.4 Insulation deficiencies12.4.1GeneralInsulation deficiencies may result from insulation losing volume over the course of timeand thereby not entirely filling the cavity in a frame wall.An infrared camera allows you to see these insulation deficiencies because they eitherhave a different heat conduction property than sections with correctly installed insulation,and/or show the area where air is penetrating the frame of the building.When you are inspecting a building, the temperature difference between the inside andoutside should be at least 10°C (18°F). Studs, water pipes, concrete columns, and similar components may resemble an insulation deficiency in an infrared image. Minor differences may also occur naturally.12.4.2FigureIn the image below, insulation in the roof framing is lacking. Due to the absence of insulation, air has forced its way into the roof structure, which thus takes on a different characteristic appearance in the infrared image.12.5 Draft12.5.1GeneralDraft can be found under baseboards, around door and window casings, and above ceiling trim. This type of draft is often possible to see with an infrared camera, as a coolerairstream cools down the surrounding surface.When you are investigating draft in a house, there should be sub-atmospheric pressurein the house. Close all doors, windows, and ventilation ducts, and allow the kitchen fanto run for a while before you take the infrared images.An infrared image of draft often shows a typical stream pattern. You can see this streampattern clearly in the picture below.Also keep in mind that drafts can be concealed by heat from floor heating circuits.12.5.2FigureThe image below shows a ceiling hatch where faulty installation has resulted in a strongdraft.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4712Application examples#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4813About FLIR SystemsFLIR Systems was established in 1978 to pioneer the development of high-performanceinfrared imaging systems, and is the world leader in the design, manufacture, and marketing of thermal imaging systems for a wide variety of commercial, industrial, and government applications. Today, FLIR Systems embraces five major companies withoutstanding achievements in infrared technology since 1958—the Swedish AGEMA Infrared Systems (formerly AGA Infrared Systems), the three United States companies Indigo Systems, FSI, and Inframetrics, and the French company Cedip.Since 2007, FLIR Systems has acquired several companies with world-leading expertisein sensor technologies:••••••••••••••••Extech Instruments (2007)Ifara Tecnologías (2008)Salvador Imaging (2009)OmniTech Partners (2009)Directed Perception (2009)Raymarine (2010)ICx Technologies (2010)TackTick Marine Digital Instruments (2011)Aerius Photonics (2011)Lorex Technology (2012)Traficon (2012)MARSS (2013)DigitalOptics micro-optics business (2013)DVTEL (2015)Point Grey Research (2016)Prox Dynamics (2016)Figure 13.1 Patent documents from the early 1960sFLIR Systems has three manufacturing plants in the United States (Portland, OR, Boston, MA, Santa Barbara, CA) and one in Sweden (Stockholm). Since 2007 there is also amanufacturing plant in Tallinn, Estonia. Direct sales offices in Belgium, Brazil, China,France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and the USA—together with a worldwide network of agents and distributors—support our international customer base.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US4913About FLIR SystemsFLIR Systems is at the forefront of innovation in the infrared camera industry. We anticipate market demand by constantly improving our existing cameras and developing newones. The company has set milestones in product design and development such as theintroduction of the first battery-operated portable camera for industrial inspections, andthe first uncooled infrared camera, to mention just two innovations.Figure 13.2 1969: Thermovision Model 661. Thecamera weighed approximately 25 kg (55 lb.), theoscilloscope 20 kg (44 lb.), and the tripod 15 kg(33 lb.). The operator also needed a 220 VACgenerator set, and a 10 L (2.6 US gallon) jar withliquid nitrogen. To the left of the oscilloscope thePolaroid attachment (6 kg/13 lb.) can be seen.Figure 13.3 2015: FLIR One, an accessory toiPhone and Android mobile phones. Weight: 90 g(3.2 oz.).FLIR Systems manufactures all vital mechanical and electronic components of the camera systems itself. From detector design and manufacturing, to lenses and system electronics, to final testing and calibration, all production steps are carried out andsupervised by our own engineers. The in-depth expertise of these infrared specialists ensures the accuracy and reliability of all vital components that are assembled into your infrared camera.13.1 More than just an infrared cameraAt FLIR Systems we recognize that our job is to go beyond just producing the best infrared camera systems. We are committed to enabling all users of our infrared camera systems to work more productively by providing them with the most powerful camera–software combination. Especially tailored software for predictive maintenance, R & D,and process monitoring is developed in-house. Most software is available in a wide variety of languages.We support all our infrared cameras with a wide variety of accessories to adapt yourequipment to the most demanding infrared applications.13.2 Sharing our knowledgeAlthough our cameras are designed to be very user-friendly, there is a lot more to thermography than just knowing how to handle a camera. Therefore, FLIR Systems hasfounded the Infrared Training Center (ITC), a separate business unit, that provides certified training courses. Attending one of the ITC courses will give you a truly hands-onlearning experience.The staff of the ITC are also there to provide you with any application support you mayneed in putting infrared theory into practice.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5013About FLIR Systems13.3 Supporting our customersFLIR Systems operates a worldwide service network to keep your camera running at alltimes. If you discover a problem with your camera, local service centers have all theequipment and expertise to solve it within the shortest possible time. Therefore, there isno need to send your camera to the other side of the world or to talk to someone whodoes not speak your language.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5114Definitions and lawsTermDefinitionAbsorption and emission2The capacity or ability of an object to absorb incident radiated energy is always the same as the capacity to emit itsown energy as radiationApparent temperatureuncompensated reading from an infrared instrument, containing all radiation incident on the instrument, regardless ofits sources3Color paletteassigns different colors to indicate specific levels of apparenttemperature. Palettes can provide high or low contrast, depending on the colors used in themConductiondirect transfer of thermal energy from molecule to molecule,caused by collisions between the moleculesConvectionheat transfer mode where a fluid is brought into motion, either by gravity or another force, thereby transferring heatfrom one place to anotherDiagnosticsexamination of symptoms and syndromes to determine thenature of faults or failures4Direction of heat transfer5Heat will spontaneously flow from hotter to colder, therebytransferring thermal energy from one place to another6Emissivityratio of the power radiated by real bodies to the power that isradiated by a blackbody at the same temperature and at thesame wavelength7Energy conservation8The sum of the total energy contents in a closed system isconstantExitant radiationradiation that leaves the surface of an object, regardless ofits original sourcesHeatthermal energy that is transferred between two objects (systems) due to their difference in temperatureHeat transfer rate9The heat transfer rate under steady state conditions is directly proportional to the thermal conductivity of the object,the cross-sectional area of the object through which the heatflows, and the temperature difference between the two endsof the object. It is inversely proportional to the length, orthickness, of the object10Incident radiationradiation that strikes an object from its surroundingsIR thermographyprocess of acquisition and analysis of thermal informationfrom non-contact thermal imaging devicesIsothermreplaces certain colors in the scale with a contrasting color. Itmarks an interval of equal apparent temperature11Qualitative thermographythermography that relies on the analysis of thermal patternsto reveal the existence of and to locate the position ofanomalies12Quantitative thermographythermography that uses temperature measurement to determine the seriousness of an anomaly, in order to establish repair priorities122. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation.3. Based on ISO 18434-1:2008 (en).4. Based on ISO 13372:2004 (en).5. 2nd law of thermodynamics.6. This is a consequence of the 2nd law of thermodynamics, the law itself is more complicated.7. Based on ISO 16714-3:2016 (en).8. 1st law of thermodynamics.9. Fourier’s law.10. This is the one-dimensional form of Fourier’s law, valid for steady-state conditions.11. Based on ISO 18434-1:2008 (en)12. Based on ISO 10878-2013 (en).#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5214Definitions and lawsTermDefinitionRadiative heat transferHeat transfer by the emission and absorption of thermalradiationReflected apparent temperatureapparent temperature of the environment that is reflected bythe target into the IR camera13Spatial resolutionability of an IR camera to resolve small objects or detailsTemperaturemeasure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules andatoms that make up the substanceThermal energytotal kinetic energy of the molecules that make up theobject14Thermal gradientgradual change in temperature over distance13Thermal tuningprocess of putting the colors of the image on the object ofanalysis, in order to maximize contrast13. Based on ISO 16714-3:2016 (en).14. Thermal energy is part of the internal energy of an object.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5315Thermographic measurementtechniques15.1 IntroductionAn infrared camera measures and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object.The fact that radiation is a function of object surface temperature makes it possible forthe camera to calculate and display this temperature.However, the radiation measured by the camera does not only depend on the temperature of the object but is also a function of the emissivity. Radiation also originates fromthe surroundings and is reflected in the object. The radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere.To measure temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the effects of a number of different radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically by thecamera. The following object parameters must, however, be supplied for the camera:•••••The emissivity of the objectThe reflected apparent temperatureThe distance between the object and the cameraThe relative humidityTemperature of the atmosphere15.2 EmissivityThe most important object parameter to set correctly is the emissivity which, in short, is ameasure of how much radiation is emitted from the object, compared to that from a perfect blackbody of the same temperature.Normally, object materials and surface treatments exhibit emissivity ranging from approximately 0.1 to 0.95. A highly polished (mirror) surface falls below 0.1, while an oxidizedor painted surface has a higher emissivity. Oil-based paint, regardless of color in the visible spectrum, has an emissivity over 0.9 in the infrared. Human skin exhibits an emissivity 0.97 to 0.98.Non-oxidized metals represent an extreme case of perfect opacity and high reflexivity,which does not vary greatly with wavelength. Consequently, the emissivity of metals islow – only increasing with temperature. For non-metals, emissivity tends to be high, anddecreases with temperature.15.2.115.2.1.1Finding the emissivity of a sampleStep 1: Determining reflected apparent temperatureUse one of the following two methods to determine reflected apparent temperature:#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5415Thermographic measurement techniques15.2.1.1.1Method 1: Direct methodFollow this procedure:1. Look for possible reflection sources, considering that the incident angle = reflectionangle (a = b).Figure 15.1 1 = Reflection source2. If the reflection source is a spot source, modify the source by obstructing it using apiece if cardboard.Figure 15.2 1 = Reflection source#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5515Thermographic measurement techniques3. Measure the radiation intensity (= apparent temperature) from the reflection sourceusing the following settings:• Emissivity: 1.0• Dobj: 0You can measure the radiation intensity using one of the following two methods:Figure 15.3 1 = Reflection sourceFigure 15.4 1 = Reflection sourceYou can not use a thermocouple to measure reflected apparent temperature, because athermocouple measures temperature, but apparent temperatrure is radiation intensity.15.2.1.1.2Method 2: Reflector methodFollow this procedure:1. Crumble up a large piece of aluminum foil.2. Uncrumble the aluminum foil and attach it to a piece of cardboard of the same size.3. Put the piece of cardboard in front of the object you want to measure. Make sure thatthe side with aluminum foil points to the camera.4. Set the emissivity to 1.0.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5615Thermographic measurement techniques5. Measure the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil and write it down. The foil isconsidered a perfect reflector, so its apparent temperature equals the reflected apparent temperature from the surroundings.Figure 15.5 Measuring the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil.15.2.1.2Step 2: Determining the emissivityFollow this procedure:1. Select a place to put the sample.2. Determine and set reflected apparent temperature according to the previousprocedure.3. Put a piece of electrical tape with known high emissivity on the sample.4. Heat the sample at least 20 K above room temperature. Heating must be reasonablyeven.5. Focus and auto-adjust the camera, and freeze the image.6. Adjust Level and Span for best image brightness and contrast.7. Set emissivity to that of the tape (usually 0.97).8. Measure the temperature of the tape using one of the following measurementfunctions:• Isotherm (helps you to determine both the temperature and how evenly you haveheated the sample)• Spot (simpler)• Box Avg (good for surfaces with varying emissivity).9. Write down the temperature.10. Move your measurement function to the sample surface.11. Change the emissivity setting until you read the same temperature as your previousmeasurement.12. Write down the emissivity.Note• Avoid forced convection• Look for a thermally stable surrounding that will not generate spot reflections• Use high quality tape that you know is not transparent, and has a high emissivity youare certain of• This method assumes that the temperature of your tape and the sample surface arethe same. If they are not, your emissivity measurement will be wrong.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5715Thermographic measurement techniques15.3 Reflected apparent temperatureThis parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected in the object. If theemissivity is low and the object temperature relatively far from that of the reflected it willbe important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent temperature correctly.15.4 DistanceThe distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. Thisparameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:• That radiation from the target is absorbed by the atmosphere between the object andthe camera.• That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.15.5 Relative humidityThe camera can also compensate for the fact that the transmittance is also dependenton the relative humidity of the atmosphere. To do this set the relative humidity to the correct value. For short distances and normal humidity the relative humidity can normally beleft at a default value of 50%.15.6 Other parametersIn addition, some cameras and analysis programs from FLIR Systems allow you to compensate for the following parameters:• Atmospheric temperature – i.e. the temperature of the atmosphere between the camera and the target• External optics temperature – i.e. the temperature of any external lenses or windowsused in front of the camera• External optics transmittance – i.e. the transmission of any external lenses or windowsused in front of the camera#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5816History of infrared technologyBefore the year 1800, the existence of the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum wasn't even suspected. The original significance of the infrared spectrum, or simply‘the infrared’ as it is often called, as a form of heat radiation is perhaps less obvious today than it was at the time of its discovery by Herschel in 1800.Figure 16.1 Sir William Herschel (1738–1822)The discovery was made accidentally during the search for a new optical material. SirWilliam Herschel – Royal Astronomer to King George III of England, and already famousfor his discovery of the planet Uranus – was searching for an optical filter material to reduce the brightness of the sun’s image in telescopes during solar observations. Whiletesting different samples of colored glass which gave similar reductions in brightness hewas intrigued to find that some of the samples passed very little of the sun’s heat, whileothers passed so much heat that he risked eye damage after only a few seconds’observation.Herschel was soon convinced of the necessity of setting up a systematic experiment,with the objective of finding a single material that would give the desired reduction inbrightness as well as the maximum reduction in heat. He began the experiment by actually repeating Newton’s prism experiment, but looking for the heating effect rather thanthe visual distribution of intensity in the spectrum. He first blackened the bulb of a sensitive mercury-in-glass thermometer with ink, and with this as his radiation detector he proceeded to test the heating effect of the various colors of the spectrum formed on the topof a table by passing sunlight through a glass prism. Other thermometers, placed outsidethe sun’s rays, served as controls.As the blackened thermometer was moved slowly along the colors of the spectrum, thetemperature readings showed a steady increase from the violet end to the red end. Thiswas not entirely unexpected, since the Italian researcher, Landriani, in a similar experiment in 1777 had observed much the same effect. It was Herschel, however, who wasthe first to recognize that there must be a point where the heating effect reaches a maximum, and that measurements confined to the visible portion of the spectrum failed to locate this point.Figure 16.2 Marsilio Landriani (1746–1815)Moving the thermometer into the dark region beyond the red end of the spectrum, Herschel confirmed that the heating continued to increase. The maximum point, when hefound it, lay well beyond the red end – in what is known today as the ‘infraredwavelengths’.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US5916History of infrared technologyWhen Herschel revealed his discovery, he referred to this new portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as the ‘thermometrical spectrum’. The radiation itself he sometimes referred to as ‘dark heat’, or simply ‘the invisible rays’. Ironically, and contrary to popularopinion, it wasn't Herschel who originated the term ‘infrared’. The word only began to appear in print around 75 years later, and it is still unclear who should receive credit as theoriginator.Herschel’s use of glass in the prism of his original experiment led to some early controversies with his contemporaries about the actual existence of the infrared wavelengths.Different investigators, in attempting to confirm his work, used various types of glass indiscriminately, having different transparencies in the infrared. Through his later experiments, Herschel was aware of the limited transparency of glass to the newly-discoveredthermal radiation, and he was forced to conclude that optics for the infrared would probably be doomed to the use of reflective elements exclusively (i.e. plane and curved mirrors). Fortunately, this proved to be true only until 1830, when the Italian investigator,Melloni, made his great discovery that naturally occurring rock salt (NaCl) – which wasavailable in large enough natural crystals to be made into lenses and prisms – is remarkably transparent to the infrared. The result was that rock salt became the principal infrared optical material, and remained so for the next hundred years, until the art of syntheticcrystal growing was mastered in the 1930’s.Figure 16.3 Macedonio Melloni (1798–1854)Thermometers, as radiation detectors, remained unchallenged until 1829, the year Nobiliinvented the thermocouple. (Herschel’s own thermometer could be read to 0.2 °C(0.036 °F), and later models were able to be read to 0.05 °C (0.09 °F)). Then a breakthrough occurred; Melloni connected a number of thermocouples in series to form thefirst thermopile. The new device was at least 40 times as sensitive as the best thermometer of the day for detecting heat radiation – capable of detecting the heat from a personstanding three meters away.The first so-called ‘heat-picture’ became possible in 1840, the result of work by Sir JohnHerschel, son of the discoverer of the infrared and a famous astronomer in his own right.Based upon the differential evaporation of a thin film of oil when exposed to a heat pattern focused upon it, the thermal image could be seen by reflected light where the interference effects of the oil film made the image visible to the eye. Sir John also managedto obtain a primitive record of the thermal image on paper, which he called a‘thermograph’.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6016History of infrared technologyFigure 16.4 Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906)The improvement of infrared-detector sensitivity progressed slowly. Another major breakthrough, made by Langley in 1880, was the invention of the bolometer. This consisted ofa thin blackened strip of platinum connected in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge circuitupon which the infrared radiation was focused and to which a sensitive galvanometer responded. This instrument is said to have been able to detect the heat from a cow at adistance of 400 meters.An English scientist, Sir James Dewar, first introduced the use of liquefied gases as cooling agents (such as liquid nitrogen with a temperature of -196 °C (-320.8 °F)) in low temperature research. In 1892 he invented a unique vacuum insulating container in which itis possible to store liquefied gases for entire days. The common ‘thermos bottle’, usedfor storing hot and cold drinks, is based upon his invention.Between the years 1900 and 1920, the inventors of the world ‘discovered’ the infrared.Many patents were issued for devices to detect personnel, artillery, aircraft, ships – andeven icebergs. The first operating systems, in the modern sense, began to be developedduring the 1914–18 war, when both sides had research programs devoted to the militaryexploitation of the infrared. These programs included experimental systems for enemyintrusion/detection, remote temperature sensing, secure communications, and ‘flying torpedo’ guidance. An infrared search system tested during this period was able to detectan approaching airplane at a distance of 1.5 km (0.94 miles), or a person more than 300meters (984 ft.) away.The most sensitive systems up to this time were all based upon variations of the bolometer idea, but the period between the two wars saw the development of two revolutionarynew infrared detectors: the image converter and the photon detector. At first, the imageconverter received the greatest attention by the military, because it enabled an observerfor the first time in history to literally ‘see in the dark’. However, the sensitivity of the image converter was limited to the near infrared wavelengths, and the most interesting military targets (i.e. enemy soldiers) had to be illuminated by infrared search beams. Sincethis involved the risk of giving away the observer’s position to a similarly-equipped enemyobserver, it is understandable that military interest in the image converter eventuallyfaded.The tactical military disadvantages of so-called 'active’ (i.e. search beam-equipped) thermal imaging systems provided impetus following the 1939–45 war for extensive secretmilitary infrared-research programs into the possibilities of developing ‘passive’ (nosearch beam) systems around the extremely sensitive photon detector. During this period, military secrecy regulations completely prevented disclosure of the status of infraredimaging technology. This secrecy only began to be lifted in the middle of the 1950’s, andfrom that time adequate thermal-imaging devices finally began to be available to civilianscience and industry.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6117Theory of thermography17.1 IntroductionThe subjects of infrared radiation and the related technique of thermography are still newto many who will use an infrared camera. In this section the theory behind thermographywill be given.17.2 The electromagnetic spectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum is divided arbitrarily into a number of wavelength regions,called bands, distinguished by the methods used to produce and detect the radiation.There is no fundamental difference between radiation in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are all governed by the same laws and the only differencesare those due to differences in wavelength.Figure 17.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. 1: X-ray; 2: UV; 3: Visible; 4: IR; 5: Microwaves; 6:Radiowaves.Thermography makes use of the infrared spectral band. At the short-wavelength end theboundary lies at the limit of visual perception, in the deep red. At the long-wavelengthend it merges with the microwave radio wavelengths, in the millimeter range.The infrared band is often further subdivided into four smaller bands, the boundaries ofwhich are also arbitrarily chosen. They include: the near infrared (0.75–3 μm), the middleinfrared (3–6 μm), the far infrared (6–15 μm) and the extreme infrared (15–100 μm).Although the wavelengths are given in μm (micrometers), other units are often still usedto measure wavelength in this spectral region, e.g. nanometer (nm) and Ångström (Å).The relationships between the different wavelength measurements is:17.3 Blackbody radiationA blackbody is defined as an object which absorbs all radiation that impinges on it at anywavelength. The apparent misnomer black relating to an object emitting radiation is explained by Kirchhoff’s Law (after Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1824–1887), which states thata body capable of absorbing all radiation at any wavelength is equally capable in theemission of radiation.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6217Theory of thermographyFigure 17.2 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824–1887)The construction of a blackbody source is, in principle, very simple. The radiation characteristics of an aperture in an isotherm cavity made of an opaque absorbing material represents almost exactly the properties of a blackbody. A practical application of theprinciple to the construction of a perfect absorber of radiation consists of a box that islight tight except for an aperture in one of the sides. Any radiation which then enters thehole is scattered and absorbed by repeated reflections so only an infinitesimal fractioncan possibly escape. The blackness which is obtained at the aperture is nearly equal toa blackbody and almost perfect for all wavelengths.By providing such an isothermal cavity with a suitable heater it becomes what is termeda cavity radiator. An isothermal cavity heated to a uniform temperature generates blackbody radiation, the characteristics of which are determined solely by the temperature ofthe cavity. Such cavity radiators are commonly used as sources of radiation in temperature reference standards in the laboratory for calibrating thermographic instruments,such as a FLIR Systems camera for example.If the temperature of blackbody radiation increases to more than 525°C (977°F), thesource begins to be visible so that it appears to the eye no longer black. This is the incipient red heat temperature of the radiator, which then becomes orange or yellow as thetemperature increases further. In fact, the definition of the so-called color temperature ofan object is the temperature to which a blackbody would have to be heated to have thesame appearance.Now consider three expressions that describe the radiation emitted from a blackbody.17.3.1Planck’s lawFigure 17.3 Max Planck (1858–1947)Max Planck (1858–1947) was able to describe the spectral distribution of the radiationfrom a blackbody by means of the following formula:#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6317Theory of thermographywhere:WλbBlackbody spectral radiant emittance at wavelength λ.Velocity of light = 3 × 108 m/sPlanck’s constant = 6.6 × 10-34 Joule sec.Boltzmann’s constant = 1.4 × 10-23 Joule/K.Absolute temperature (K) of a blackbody.λWavelength (μm).Note The factor 10-6 is used since spectral emittance in the curves is expressed inWatt/m2, μm.Planck’s formula, when plotted graphically for various temperatures, produces a family ofcurves. Following any particular Planck curve, the spectral emittance is zero at λ = 0,then increases rapidly to a maximum at a wavelength λmax and after passing it approaches zero again at very long wavelengths. The higher the temperature, the shorterthe wavelength at which maximum occurs.Figure 17.4 Blackbody spectral radiant emittance according to Planck’s law, plotted for various absolutetemperatures. 1: Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 × 103(μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm)17.3.2Wien’s displacement lawBy differentiating Planck’s formula with respect to λ, and finding the maximum, we have:This is Wien’s formula (after Wilhelm Wien, 1864–1928), which expresses mathematically the common observation that colors vary from red to orange or yellow as the temperature of a thermal radiator increases. The wavelength of the color is the same as thewavelength calculated for λmax. A good approximation of the value of λmax for a givenblackbody temperature is obtained by applying the rule-of-thumb 3 000/T μm. Thus, avery hot star such as Sirius (11 000 K), emitting bluish-white light, radiates with the peakof spectral radiant emittance occurring within the invisible ultraviolet spectrum, at wavelength 0.27 μm.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6417Theory of thermographyFigure 17.5 Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928)The sun (approx. 6 000 K) emits yellow light, peaking at about 0.5 μm in the middle ofthe visible light spectrum.At room temperature (300 K) the peak of radiant emittance lies at 9.7 μm, in the far infrared, while at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) the maximum of the almost insignificant amount of radiant emittance occurs at 38 μm, in the extreme infrared wavelengths.Figure 17.6 Planckian curves plotted on semi-log scales from 100 K to 1000 K. The dotted line representsthe locus of maximum radiant emittance at each temperature as described by Wien's displacement law. 1:Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 (μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm).17.3.3Stefan-Boltzmann's lawBy integrating Planck’s formula from λ = 0 to λ = ∞, we obtain the total radiant emittance(Wb) of a blackbody:This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula (after Josef Stefan, 1835–1893, and Ludwig Boltzmann, 1844–1906), which states that the total emissive power of a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. Graphically, Wb represents thearea below the Planck curve for a particular temperature. It can be shown that the radiantemittance in the interval λ = 0 to λmax is only 25% of the total, which represents about theamount of the sun’s radiation which lies inside the visible light spectrum.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6517Theory of thermographyFigure 17.7 Josef Stefan (1835–1893), and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)Using the Stefan-Boltzmann formula to calculate the power radiated by the human body,at a temperature of 300 K and an external surface area of approx. 2 m2, we obtain 1 kW.This power loss could not be sustained if it were not for the compensating absorption ofradiation from surrounding surfaces, at room temperatures which do not vary too drastically from the temperature of the body – or, of course, the addition of clothing.17.3.4Non-blackbody emittersSo far, only blackbody radiators and blackbody radiation have been discussed. However,real objects almost never comply with these laws over an extended wavelength region –although they may approach the blackbody behavior in certain spectral intervals. For example, a certain type of white paint may appear perfectly white in the visible light spectrum, but becomes distinctly gray at about 2 μm, and beyond 3 μm it is almost black.There are three processes which can occur that prevent a real object from acting like ablackbody: a fraction of the incident radiation α may be absorbed, a fraction ρ may be reflected, and a fraction τ may be transmitted. Since all of these factors are more or lesswavelength dependent, the subscript λ is used to imply the spectral dependence of theirdefinitions. Thus:• The spectral absorptance αλ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power absorbed by anobject to that incident upon it.• The spectral reflectance ρλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power reflected by an object to that incident upon it.• The spectral transmittance τλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power transmittedthrough an object to that incident upon it.The sum of these three factors must always add up to the whole at any wavelength, sowe have the relation:For opaque materials τλ = 0 and the relation simplifies to:Another factor, called the emissivity, is required to describe the fraction ε of the radiantemittance of a blackbody produced by an object at a specific temperature. Thus, wehave the definition:The spectral emissivity ελ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power from an object to thatfrom a blackbody at the same temperature and wavelength.Expressed mathematically, this can be written as the ratio of the spectral emittance ofthe object to that of a blackbody as follows:Generally speaking, there are three types of radiation source, distinguished by the waysin which the spectral emittance of each varies with wavelength.• A blackbody, for which ελ = ε = 1• A graybody, for which ελ = ε = constant less than 1#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6617Theory of thermography• A selective radiator, for which ε varies with wavelengthAccording to Kirchhoff’s law, for any material the spectral emissivity and spectral absorptance of a body are equal at any specified temperature and wavelength. That is:From this we obtain, for an opaque material (since αλ + ρλ = 1):For highly polished materials ελ approaches zero, so that for a perfectly reflecting material (i.e. a perfect mirror) we have:For a graybody radiator, the Stefan-Boltzmann formula becomes:This states that the total emissive power of a graybody is the same as a blackbody at thesame temperature reduced in proportion to the value of ε from the graybody.Figure 17.8 Spectral radiant emittance of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral radiant emittance; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Selective radiator; 5: Graybody.Figure 17.9 Spectral emissivity of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral emissivity; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Graybody; 5: Selective radiator.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6717Theory of thermography17.4 Infrared semi-transparent materialsConsider now a non-metallic, semi-transparent body – let us say, in the form of a thick flatplate of plastic material. When the plate is heated, radiation generated within its volumemust work its way toward the surfaces through the material in which it is partially absorbed. Moreover, when it arrives at the surface, some of it is reflected back into the interior. The back-reflected radiation is again partially absorbed, but some of it arrives at theother surface, through which most of it escapes; part of it is reflected back again.Although the progressive reflections become weaker and weaker they must all be addedup when the total emittance of the plate is sought. When the resulting geometrical seriesis summed, the effective emissivity of a semi-transparent plate is obtained as:When the plate becomes opaque this formula is reduced to the single formula:This last relation is a particularly convenient one, because it is often easier to measurereflectance than to measure emissivity directly.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6818The measurement formulaAs already mentioned, when viewing an object, the camera receives radiation not onlyfrom the object itself. It also collects radiation from the surroundings reflected via the object surface. Both these radiation contributions become attenuated to some extent by theatmosphere in the measurement path. To this comes a third radiation contribution fromthe atmosphere itself.This description of the measurement situation, as illustrated in the figure below, is so fara fairly true description of the real conditions. What has been neglected could for instance be sun light scattering in the atmosphere or stray radiation from intense radiationsources outside the field of view. Such disturbances are difficult to quantify, however, inmost cases they are fortunately small enough to be neglected. In case they are not negligible, the measurement configuration is likely to be such that the risk for disturbance isobvious, at least to a trained operator. It is then his responsibility to modify the measurement situation to avoid the disturbance e.g. by changing the viewing direction, shieldingoff intense radiation sources etc.Accepting the description above, we can use the figure below to derive a formula for thecalculation of the object temperature from the calibrated camera output.Figure 18.1 A schematic representation of the general thermographic measurement situation.1: Surroundings; 2: Object; 3: Atmosphere; 4: CameraAssume that the received radiation power W from a blackbody source of temperatureTsource on short distance generates a camera output signal Usource that is proportional tothe power input (power linear camera). We can then write (Equation 1):or, with simplified notation:where C is a constant.Should the source be a graybody with emittance ε, the received radiation would consequently be εWsource.We are now ready to write the three collected radiation power terms:1. Emission from the object = ετWobj, where ε is the emittance of the object and τ is thetransmittance of the atmosphere. The object temperature is Tobj.#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US6918The measurement formula2. Reflected emission from ambient sources = (1 – ε)τWrefl, where (1 – ε) is the reflectance of the object. The ambient sources have the temperature Trefl.It has here been assumed that the temperature Trefl is the same for all emitting surfaces within the halfsphere seen from a point on the object surface. This is of coursesometimes a simplification of the true situation. It is, however, a necessary simplification in order to derive a workable formula, and Trefl can – at least theoretically – be given a value that represents an efficient temperature of a complex surrounding.Note also that we have assumed that the emittance for the surroundings = 1. This iscorrect in accordance with Kirchhoff’s law: All radiation impinging on the surroundingsurfaces will eventually be absorbed by the same surfaces. Thus the emittance = 1.(Note though that the latest discussion requires the complete sphere around the object to be considered.)3. Emission from the atmosphere = (1 – τ)τWatm, where (1 – τ) is the emittance of the atmosphere. The temperature of the atmosphere is Tatm.The total received radiation power can now be written (Equation 2):We multiply each term by the constant C of Equation 1 and replace the CW products bythe corresponding U according to the same equation, and get (Equation 3):Solve Equation 3 for Uobj (Equation 4):This is the general measurement formula used in all the FLIR Systems thermographicequipment. The voltages of the formula are:Table 18.1 VoltagesUobjCalculated camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperatureTobj i.e. a voltage that can be directly converted into true requestedobject temperature.UtotMeasured camera output voltage for the actual case.UreflTheoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperatureTrefl according to the calibration.UatmTheoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperatureTatm according to the calibration.The operator has to supply a number of parameter values for the calculation:•••••the object emittance ε,the relative humidity,Tatmobject distance (Dobj)the (effective) temperature of the object surroundings, or the reflected ambient temperature Trefl, and• the temperature of the atmosphere TatmThis task could sometimes be a heavy burden for the operator since there are normallyno easy ways to find accurate values of emittance and atmospheric transmittance for theactual case. The two temperatures are normally less of a problem provided the surroundings do not contain large and intense radiation sources.A natural question in this connection is: How important is it to know the right values ofthese parameters? It could though be of interest to get a feeling for this problem alreadyhere by looking into some different measurement cases and compare the relative#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7018The measurement formulamagnitudes of the three radiation terms. This will give indications about when it is important to use correct values of which parameters.The figures below illustrates the relative magnitudes of the three radiation contributionsfor three different object temperatures, two emittances, and two spectral ranges: SW andLW. Remaining parameters have the following fixed values:• τ = 0.88• Trefl = +20°C (+68°F)• Tatm = +20°C (+68°F)It is obvious that measurement of low object temperatures are more critical than measuring high temperatures since the ‘disturbing’ radiation sources are relatively much stronger in the first case. Should also the object emittance be low, the situation would be stillmore difficult.We have finally to answer a question about the importance of being allowed to use thecalibration curve above the highest calibration point, what we call extrapolation. Imaginethat we in a certain case measure Utot = 4.5 volts. The highest calibration point for thecamera was in the order of 4.1 volts, a value unknown to the operator. Thus, even if theobject happened to be a blackbody, i.e. Uobj = Utot, we are actually performing extrapolation of the calibration curve when converting 4.5 volts into temperature.Let us now assume that the object is not black, it has an emittance of 0.75, and the transmittance is 0.92. We also assume that the two second terms of Equation 4 amount to 0.5volts together. Computation of Uobj by means of Equation 4 then results in Uobj = 4.5 /0.75 / 0.92 – 0.5 = 6.0. This is a rather extreme extrapolation, particularly when considering that the video amplifier might limit the output to 5 volts! Note, though, that the application of the calibration curve is a theoretical procedure where no electronic or otherlimitations exist. We trust that if there had been no signal limitations in the camera, and ifit had been calibrated far beyond 5 volts, the resulting curve would have been very muchthe same as our real curve extrapolated beyond 4.1 volts, provided the calibration algorithm is based on radiation physics, like the FLIR Systems algorithm. Of course theremust be a limit to such extrapolations.Figure 18.2 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (SW camera). 1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7118The measurement formulaFigure 18.3 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (LW camera). 1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7219Emissivity tablesThis section presents a compilation of emissivity data from the infrared literature andmeasurements made by FLIR Systems.19.1 References1. Mikaél A. Bramson: Infrared Radiation, A Handbook for Applications, Plenum press,N.Y.2. William L. Wolfe, George J. Zissis: The Infrared Handbook, Office of Naval Research,Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.3. Madding, R. P.: Thermographic Instruments and systems. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin – Extension, Department of Engineering and Applied Science.4. William L. Wolfe: Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, Office of Naval Research,Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.5. Jones, Smith, Probert: External thermography of buildings..., Proc. of the Society ofPhoto-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, vol.110, Industrial and Civil Applications ofInfrared Technology, June 1977 London.6. Paljak, Pettersson: Thermography of Buildings, Swedish Building Research Institute,Stockholm 1972.7. Vlcek, J: Determination of emissivity with imaging radiometers and some emissivitiesat λ = 5 µm. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.8. Kern: Evaluation of infrared emission of clouds and ground as measured by weathersatellites, Defence Documentation Center, AD 617 417.9. Öhman, Claes: Emittansmätningar med AGEMA E-Box. Teknisk rapport, AGEMA1999. (Emittance measurements using AGEMA E-Box. Technical report, AGEMA1999.)10. Matteï, S., Tang-Kwor, E: Emissivity measurements for Nextel Velvet coating 811-21between –36°C AND 82°C.11. Lohrengel & Todtenhaupt (1996)12. ITC Technical publication 32.13. ITC Technical publication 29.14. Schuster, Norbert and Kolobrodov, Valentin G. Infrarotthermographie. Berlin: WileyVCH, 2000.Note The emissivity values in the table below are recorded using a shortwave (SW)camera. The values should be regarded as recommendations only and used withcaution.19.2 TablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference3M type 35Vinyl electricaltape (severalcolors)< 80LW≈ 0.96133M type 88Black vinyl electrical tape< 105LW≈ 0.96133M type 88Black vinyl electrical tape< 105MW< 0.96133M type Super 33Black vinyl electrical tape< 80LW≈ 0.9613Aluminumanodized sheet1000.55Aluminumanodized, black,dull70SW0.67Aluminumanodized, black,dull70LW0.95#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7319Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Aluminumanodized, lightgray, dull70SW0.61Aluminumanodized, lightgray, dull70LW0.97Aluminumas received, plate1000.09Aluminumas received,sheet1000.09Aluminumcast, blastcleaned70SW0.47Aluminumcast, blastcleaned70LW0.46Aluminumdipped in HNO3,plate1000.05Aluminumfoil2710 µm0.04Aluminumfoil273 µm0.09Aluminumoxidized, strongly50–5000.2–0.3Aluminumpolished50–1000.04–0.06Aluminumpolished plate1000.05Aluminumpolished, sheet1000.05Aluminumrough surface20–500.06–0.07Aluminumroughened2710 µm0.18Aluminumroughened273 µm0.28Aluminumsheet, 4 samplesdifferentlyscratched70SW0.05–0.08Aluminumsheet, 4 samplesdifferentlyscratched70LW0.03–0.06Aluminumvacuumdeposited200.04Aluminumweathered,heavily17SW0.83–0.94200.60Aluminum bronzeAluminumhydroxidepowder0.28Aluminum oxideactivated, powder0.46Aluminum oxidepure, powder(alumina)0.16Asbestosboard0.96Asbestosfabric0.78Asbestosfloor tile35SW0.94Asbestospaper40–4000.93–0.95Asbestospowder0.40–0.60Asbestosslate200.96LLW0.967Asphalt paving20Brassdull, tarnished20–3500.22Brassoxidized1000.61Brassoxidized70SW0.04–0.09#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7419Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Brassoxidized70LW0.03–0.07Brassoxidized at 600°C200–6000.59–0.61Brasspolished2000.03Brasspolished, highly1000.03Brassrubbed with 80grit emery200.20Brasssheet, rolled200.06Brasssheet, workedwith emery200.2Brickalumina17SW0.68Brickcommon17SW0.86–0.81BrickDinas silica,glazed, rough11000.85BrickDinas silica,refractory10000.66BrickDinas silica, unglazed, rough10000.80Brickfirebrick17SW0.68Brickfireclay10000.75Brickfireclay12000.59Brickfireclay200.85Brickmasonry35SW0.94Brickmasonry,plastered200.94Brickred, common200.93Brickred, rough200.88–0.93Brickrefractory,corundum10000.46Brickrefractory,magnesite1000–13000.38Brickrefractory,strongly radiating500–10000.8–0.9Brickrefractory, weaklyradiating500–10000.65–0.75Bricksilica, 95% SiO212300.66Bricksillimanite, 33%SiO2, 64% Al2O315000.29Brickwaterproof17SW0.87Bronzephosphor bronze70SW0.08Bronzephosphor bronze70LW0.06Bronzepolished500.1Bronzeporous, rough50–1500.55Bronzepowder0.76–0.80Carboncandle soot0.95Carboncharcoal powder0.96Carbongraphite powder0.97#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US207519Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Carbongraphite, filedsurface200.98Carbonlampblack20–4000.95–0.97Chipboarduntreated20SW0.90Chromiumpolished500.10Chromiumpolished500–10000.28–0.38Clayfired700.91Clothblack200.98200.92ConcreteConcretedry36SW0.95Concreterough17SW0.97ConcretewalkwayLLW0.974Coppercommercial,burnished200.07Copperelectrolytic, carefully polished800.018Copperelectrolytic,polished–340.006Coppermolten1100–13000.13–0.15Copperoxidized500.6–0.7Copperoxidized toblackness0.88Copperoxidized, black270.78Copperoxidized, heavily200.78Copperpolished50–1000.02Copperpolished1000.03Copperpolished,commercial270.03Copperpolished,mechanical220.015Copperpure, carefullyprepared surface220.008Copperscraped270.07Copper dioxidepowder0.84Copper oxidered, powder0.700.89800.85200.9EboniteEmerycoarseEnamelEnamellacquer200.85–0.95Fiber boardhard, untreated20SW0.85Fiber boardmasonite70SW0.75Fiber boardmasonite70LW0.88Fiber boardparticle board70SW0.77Fiber boardparticle board70LW0.89Fiber boardporous, untreated20SW0.85#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7619Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Glass pane (floatglass)non-coated20LW0.9714Goldpolished1300.018Goldpolished, carefully200–6000.02–0.03Goldpolished, highly1000.02Granitepolished20LLW0.849Graniterough21LLW0.879Graniterough, 4 differentsamples70SW0.95–0.97Graniterough, 4 differentsamples70LW0.77–0.87200.8–0.9GypsumIce: See WaterIron and steelcold rolled70SW0.20Iron and steelcold rolled70LW0.09Iron and steelcovered with redrust200.61–0.85Iron and steelelectrolytic1000.05Iron and steelelectrolytic220.05Iron and steelelectrolytic2600.07Iron and steelelectrolytic, carefully polished175–2250.05–0.06Iron and steelfreshly workedwith emery200.24Iron and steelground sheet950–11000.55–0.61Iron and steelheavily rustedsheet200.69Iron and steelhot rolled1300.60Iron and steelhot rolled200.77Iron and steeloxidized1000.74Iron and steeloxidized1000.74Iron and steeloxidized12270.89Iron and steeloxidized125–5250.78–0.82Iron and steeloxidized2000.79Iron and steeloxidized200–6000.80Iron and steeloxidized strongly500.88Iron and steeloxidized strongly5000.98Iron and steelpolished1000.07Iron and steelpolished400–10000.14–0.38Iron and steelpolished sheet750–10500.52–0.56Iron and steelrolled sheet500.56Iron and steelrolled, freshly200.24Iron and steelrough, planesurface500.95–0.98Iron and steelrusted red, sheet220.69Iron and steelrusted, heavily17SW0.96#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7719Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Iron and steelrusty, red200.69Iron and steelshiny oxide layer,sheet,200.82Iron and steelshiny, etched1500.16Iron and steelwrought, carefullypolished40–2500.28Iron galvanizedheavily oxidized70SW0.64Iron galvanizedheavily oxidized70LW0.85Iron galvanizedsheet920.07Iron galvanizedsheet, burnished300.23Iron galvanizedsheet, oxidized200.28Iron tinnedsheet240.064Iron, castcasting500.81Iron, castingots10000.95Iron, castliquid13000.28Iron, castmachined800–10000.60–0.70Iron, castoxidized1000.64Iron, castoxidized2600.66Iron, castoxidized380.63Iron, castoxidized5380.76Iron, castoxidized at 600°C200–6000.64–0.78Iron, castpolished2000.21Iron, castpolished380.21Iron, castpolished400.21Iron, castunworked900–11000.87–0.95Krylon Ultra-flatblack 1602Flat blackRoom temperature up to 175LW≈ 0.9612Krylon Ultra-flatblack 1602Flat blackRoom temperature up to 175MW≈ 0.9712Lacquer3 colors sprayedon Aluminum70SW0.50–0.53Lacquer3 colors sprayedon Aluminum70LW0.92–0.94LacquerAluminum onrough surface200.4Lacquerbakelite800.83Lacquerblack, dull40–1000.96–0.98Lacquerblack, matte1000.97Lacquerblack, shiny,sprayed on iron200.87Lacquerheat–resistant1000.92Lacquerwhite1000.92Lacquerwhite40–1000.8–0.95Leadoxidized at 200°C2000.63Leadoxidized, gray200.28#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7819Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Leadoxidized, gray220.28Leadshiny2500.08Leadunoxidized,polished1000.051000.931000.930.75–0.80Lead redLead red, powderLeathertannedLime0.3–0.4Magnesium220.07Magnesium2600.135380.18200.070.861500–22000.19–0.26600–10000.08–0.13700–25000.1–0.317SW0.87MagnesiumMagnesiumpolishedMagnesiumpowderMolybdenumMolybdenumMolybdenumfilamentMortarMortardry36SW0.94Nextel Velvet811-21 BlackFlat black–60–150LW> 0.9710 and11Nichromerolled7000.25Nichromesandblasted7000.70Nichromewire, clean500.65Nichromewire, clean500–10000.71–0.79Nichromewire, oxidized50–5000.95–0.98Nickelbright matte1220.041Nickelcommerciallypure, polished1000.045Nickelcommerciallypure, polished200–4000.07–0.09Nickelelectrolytic220.04Nickelelectrolytic2600.07Nickelelectrolytic380.06Nickelelectrolytic5380.10Nickelelectroplated oniron, polished220.045Nickelelectroplated oniron, unpolished200.11–0.40Nickelelectroplated oniron, unpolished220.11Nickelelectroplated,polished200.05Nickeloxidized12270.85Nickeloxidized2000.37Nickeloxidized2270.37#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US7919Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Nickeloxidized at 600°C200–6000.37–0.48Nickelpolished1220.045Nickelwire200–10000.1–0.21000–12500.75–0.86Nickel oxideNickel oxide500–6500.52–0.59Oil, lubricating0.025 mm film200.27Oil, lubricating0.050 mm film200.46Oil, lubricating0.125 mm film200.72Oil, lubricatingfilm on Ni base:Ni base only200.05Oil, lubricatingthick coating200.82Paint8 different colorsand qualities70SW0.88–0.96Paint8 different colorsand qualities70LW0.92–0.94PaintAluminum, various ages50–1000.27–0.67Paintcadmium yellow0.28–0.33Paintchrome green0.65–0.70Paintcobalt blue0.7–0.8Paintoil17SW0.87Paintoil based, average of 16 colors1000.94Paintoil, black flat20SW0.94Paintoil, black gloss20SW0.92Paintoil, gray flat20SW0.97Paintoil, gray gloss20SW0.96Paintoil, various colors1000.92–0.96Paintplastic, black20SW0.95Paintplastic, white20SW0.84Paper4 different colors70SW0.68–0.74Paper4 different colors70LW0.92–0.94Paperblack0.90Paperblack, dull0.94Paperblack, dull70SW0.86Paperblack, dull70LW0.89Paperblue, dark0.84Papercoated with blacklacquer0.93Papergreen0.85Paperred0.76Paperwhite200.7–0.9Paperwhite bond200.93Paperwhite, 3 differentglosses70SW0.76–0.78#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US8019Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Paperwhite, 3 differentglosses70LW0.88–0.90Paperyellow0.7217SW0.86Plasterplasterboard,untreated20SW0.90Plasterrough coat200.91Plasticglass fibre laminate (printed circ.board)70SW0.94Plasticglass fibre laminate (printed circ.board)70LW0.91Plasticpolyurethane isolation board70LW0.55Plasticpolyurethane isolation board70SW0.29PlasticPVC, plastic floor,dull, structured70SW0.94PlasticPVC, plastic floor,dull, structured70LW0.93Platinum1000.05Platinum1000–15000.14–0.18Platinum10940.18Platinum170.016Platinum220.03Platinum2600.06Platinum5380.10PlasterPlatinumpure, polished200–6000.05–0.10Platinumribbon900–11000.12–0.17Platinumwire14000.18Platinumwire500–10000.10–0.16Platinumwire50–2000.06–0.07Porcelainglazed200.92Porcelainwhite, shiny0.70–0.75Rubberhard200.95Rubbersoft, gray, rough200.95SandSand0.60200.90Sandstonepolished19LLW0.909Sandstonerough19LLW0.935Silverpolished1000.03Silverpure, polished200–6000.02–0.03Skinhuman320.98Slagboiler0–1000.97–0.93Slagboiler1400–18000.69–0.67Slagboiler200–5000.89–0.78#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US8119Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Slagboiler600–12000.76–0.70Soildry200.92Soilsaturated withwater200.95Stainless steelalloy, 8% Ni, 18%Cr5000.35Stainless steelrolled7000.45Stainless steelsandblasted7000.70Stainless steelsheet, polished70SW0.18Stainless steelsheet, polished70LW0.14Stainless steelsheet, untreated,somewhatscratched70SW0.30Stainless steelsheet, untreated,somewhatscratched70LW0.28Stainless steeltype 18-8, buffed200.16Stainless steeltype 18-8, oxidized at 800°C600.85Stuccorough, lime10–900.91Styrofoaminsulation37SW0.600.79–0.84Tarpaper200.91–0.93Tileglazed17SW0.94Tinburnished20–500.04–0.06Tintin–plated sheetiron1000.07Titaniumoxidized at 540°C10000.60Titaniumoxidized at 540°C2000.40Titaniumoxidized at 540°C5000.50Titaniumpolished10000.36Titaniumpolished2000.15Titaniumpolished5000.20Tungsten1500–22000.24–0.31Tungsten2000.05Tungsten600–10000.1–0.16Snow: See WaterTarTungstenfilament33000.39Varnishflat20SW0.93Varnishon oak parquetfloor70SW0.90Varnishon oak parquetfloor70LW0.90–0.93Wallpaperslight pattern,light gray20SW0.85Wallpaperslight pattern, red20SW0.90Waterdistilled200.96#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US8219Emissivity tablesTable 19.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Waterfrost crystals–100.98Waterice, covered withheavy frost0.98Waterice, smooth0.97Waterice, smooth–100.96Waterlayer >0.1 mmthick0–1000.95–0.98Watersnow0.8Watersnow–100.85Wood17SW0.98Wood19LLW0.9620.5–0.7WoodgroundWoodpine, 4 differentsamples70SW0.67–0.75Woodpine, 4 differentsamples70LW0.81–0.89Woodplaned200.8–0.9Woodplaned oak200.90Woodplaned oak70SW0.77Woodplaned oak70LW0.88Woodplywood, smooth,dry36SW0.82Woodplywood,untreated20SW0.83Woodwhite, damp200.7–0.8Zincoxidized at 400°C4000.11Zincoxidized surface1000–12000.50–0.60Zincpolished200–3000.04–0.05Zincsheet500.20#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US83A note on the technical production of this publicationThis publication was produced using XML — the eXtensible Markup Language. For more informationabout XML, please visit http://www.w3.org/XML/A note on the typeface used in this publicationThis publication was typeset using Linotype Helvetica™ World. Helvetica™ was designed by MaxMiedinger (1910–1980)LOEF (List Of Effective Files)T501109.xml; en-US; AL; 40424; 2017-02-16T505552.xml; en-US; 9599; 2013-11-05T505469.xml; en-US; 39689; 2017-01-25T505013.xml; en-US; 39689; 2017-01-25T505799.xml; en-US; 39839; 2017-01-30T505800.xml; en-US; 39839; 2017-01-30T505801.xml; en-US; 40414; 2017-02-16T505816.xml; en-US; 40286; 2017-02-14T505470.xml; en-US; 39513; 2017-01-18T505012.xml; en-US; 39581; 2017-01-20T505007.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505004.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505000.xml; en-US; 39687; 2017-01-25T505005.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505001.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505006.xml; en-US; 39581; 2017-01-20T505002.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18#T559918; r. AL/40424/40424; en-US84Websitelastpagehttp://www.flir.comCustomer supporthttp://support.flir.comCopyright© 2017, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.DisclaimerSpecifications subject to change without further notice. Models and accessories subject to regional market considerations. License procedures may apply.Products described herein may be subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.com with any questions.Publ. No.:Release:Commit:Head:Language:Modified:Formatted:T559918AL4042440424en-US2017-02-162017-02-16
Document ID3339033
Application IDcwgH4tXA/mFEbaeFiW8ocQ==
Document DescriptionUser Manual
Download:
Mirror Download [FCC.gov]
Short Term ConfidentialNo
Permanent ConfidentialNo
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Document TypeUser Manual
Display FormatAdobe Acrobat PDF - pdf
Filesize137.49kB (1718687 bits)
Date Submitted2017-03-30 00:00:00
Date Available2017-05-01 00:00:00
Creation Date2017-02-16 14:30:52
Producing SoftwarePDFlib+PDI 9.0.2p2 (C++/Win64)
Document Lastmod2017-02-16 14:30:52
Document TitleUser Manual
Document CreatorPTC Arbortext Publishing Engine
Document Author:Copyright 2017, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.

Source Exif Data [exif.tools]:

(Video) Introducing the FLIR E6 Infrared Camera with MSX

File Type : PDFFile Type Extension : pdfMIME Type : application/pdfPDF Version : 1.7Linearized : NoPage Count : 94Page Layout : SinglePagePage Mode : UseOutlinesLanguage : en-usInstance ID : uuid:98CC3337-9BEC-07BB-CD04-56281D5528A7Document ID : uuid:46A4A464-6485-91B9-C1B4-EFC02CBCCF82Create Date : 2017:02:16 14:30:52+01:00Modify Date : 2017:02:16 14:30:52+01:00Creator Tool : PTC Arbortext Publishing EngineMetadata Date : 2017:02:16 14:30:52+01:00Producer : PDFlib+PDI 9.0.2p2 (C++/Win64)Keywords : Support: http://support.flir.com — Training: http://www.infraredtraining.comFlir scms spath : 147Flir scms xtitle : Applies to: C2, C3.Flir scms type : Flir scms title : Manual: FLIR Cx seriesFlir scms swver : Flir scms snappl : Flir scms release : ALFlir scms publno : T559918Flir scms pnappl : Applies to: 72001-0101, 72002-0202, 72003-0303, 72003-0404Flir scms modified : 2017:02:16 14:21Flir scms lang : en-USFlir scms head : 40424Flir scms commit : 40424Config File : C:\Program Files\PTC\Arbortext PE 6.1\app\standard.appcfStylesheet : C:\Program Files\PTC\Arbortext PE 6.1\application\se.simonsoft.flir\doctypes\FLIR\flir.stylePTC Arbortext Build : R61M030-219EP Sprocessor : PStill version 1.84.36Print Engine : Arbortext Advanced Print Publisher 11.0.3257/W Library-x64Description : Corporate website: http://www.flir.comCreator : Copyright 2017, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.Flir Scms Spath : 147Flir Scms Xtitle : Applies to: C2, C3.Flir Scms Type : Flir Scms Title : Manual: FLIR Cx seriesFlir Scms Swver : Flir Scms Snappl : Flir Scms Release : ALFlir Scms Publno : T559918Flir Scms Pnappl : Applies to: 72001-0101, 72002-0202, 72003-0303, 72003-0404Flir Scms Modified : 2017-02-16 14:21Flir Scms Lang : en-USFlir Scms Head : 40424Flir Scms Commit : 40424Subject : Corporate website: http://www.flir.comAuthor : Copyright 2017, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.

FAQs

How do I set up my FLIR camera? ›

How to setup the FLIR Secure WiFi Security Camera using ... - YouTube

How do I use FLIR infrared camera? ›

How to use the FLIR ONE Thermal Imaging Camera - YouTube

Why is my FLIR camera not working? ›

What can I try if my FLIR software is not working properly? Make sure Windows Firewall is not preventing the program from working properly. In case your user does not have permission to access the settings for Windows Firewall, please reach out to your IT department.

How do I calibrate FLIR one? ›

It is also possible to manually activate the shutter by tapping the Calibration icon in the upper right on the main screen. Calibration can be switched to manual by turning off Automatic Calibration in the Settings Menu. The FLIR ONE Pro is tuned to align thermal and visual images at a distance of 3 meters.

How do I connect my FLIR camera to WIFI? ›

(This can be done by going to the settings in your Android phone and turning on the "hotspot" function—usually called "mobile hotspot" or "portable hotspot". Set a password for the hotspot connection.) Connect the camera to the Android phone's hotspot-enabled Wi-Fi network.

What is the default password for FLIR cameras? ›

Enter the client user name (default: admin) and password (default: admin) and click Login. Install FLIR Cloud™ Client from the CD or from www.flir.com/security/support on a PC or Mac in the same LAN as the IP camera.

How do I connect my phone to FLIR? ›

How to Wirelessly Connect Your FLIR Camera To An Android Phone

What app do I use for my FLIR camera? ›

Getting started with your FLIR ONE

Install the FLIR ONE app on your phone/tablet from the App Store (iOS) or the Play Store (Android). Turn on your FLIR ONE by pressing the power button and wait until the steady orange light changes to a blinking green light. This means that the camera is ready for use.

What do the colors on a thermal camera mean? ›

In any thermogram, the brighter colors (red, orange, and yellow) indicate warmer temperatures (more heat and infrared radiation emitted) while the purples and dark blue/black indicate cooler temperatures (less heat and infrared radiation emitted). In this image, the bright yellow area indicates the electrical fault.

How do you reset a FLIR camera? ›

How do I restore the default settings for a handheld FLIR camera?
  1. Tap the touch screen to show the menu bar.
  2. Select Settings (gear button).
  3. Select Device Settings.
  4. Select Reset Options.
  5. Select Reset device settings to factory default…

How do I update my FLIR camera firmware? ›

Power up the camera, connect it to the PC with a USB cable, and then start FLIR Tools. If your camera uses an SD card, ensure that the card is inserted into the camera. If the splash screen appears, click Check for Updates. For the K-series firefighting cameras, click Configure Camera, then Check for Updates.

How do I upload photos from FLIR camera? ›

FLIR Tools - Importing Images - YouTube

Do FLIR cameras need calibration? ›

Nevertheless, electronic component aging over time can cause calibration shift. This means that your FLIR camera should be checked periodically for measurement accuracy, and recalibrated as needed. We recommend this be done annually.

How often should a FLIR camera be calibrated? ›

We recommend getting your thermal imaging camera calibrated annually to ensure that your camera is still testing within parameters set by the manufacturer. maximum potentials. - Get accurate measurement & readings. with the standards according to ISO 9001:2008 (Nov.

Do thermal imaging cameras need calibration? ›

Unfortunately, the answer is no: to maintain the accuracy of your thermal camera, you will need to send it in for regular calibration by the camera manufacturer. We recommend this be done annually.

How do I connect my FLIR camera to my Android phone? ›

How to Set Up the FLIR One Pro ANDROID Thermal ... - YouTube

How do you reset a FLIR camera? ›

How do I restore the default settings for a handheld FLIR camera?
  1. Tap the touch screen to show the menu bar.
  2. Select Settings (gear button).
  3. Select Device Settings.
  4. Select Reset Options.
  5. Select Reset device settings to factory default…

How do I connect my Lorex FLIR to WiFi? ›

To connect to your HD WiFi camera through Bluetooth using the Lorex Secure / FLIR Secure app:
  1. Connect the included microUSB cable to the included power adapter. ...
  2. Remove the protective film on the lens.
  3. Turn on Bluetooth on your smartphone or tablet.
  4. Launch the Lorex Secure / FLIR Secure app on your smartphone or tablet.
Sep 12, 2018

How do you get a thermal camera to work on iPhone? ›

How to turn your iPhone into a Thermal Camera! | iJustine - YouTube

Videos

1. Four Infrared Cameras Comparison
(International Association of Certified Home Inspectors (InterNACHI))
2. Introducing the FLIR E5 Infrared Camera with MSX
(Teledyne FLIR)
3. Why is the New FLIR C5 Infrared Camera a Gamechanger?
(Thermal Warrior)
4. FLIR ONE Pro vs Seek Compact Pro Smartphone Thermal Camera Comparison
(TEquipment)
5. FLIR infrared thermal cameras | Remodeling must-have!
(Belinda Carr)
6. Flir's C3 Full-Featured Thermal Camera
(GalcoTV)

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