FLIRE6390 Infrared Camera User Manual FLIR Systems AB (2022)

FLIR Systems AB Infrared Camera

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FLIRE6390 Infrared Camera User Manual FLIR Systems AB (1)

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User’s manualFLIR Ex seriesUser’s manualFLIR Ex series#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-USiiiTable of contentsDisclaimers ......................................................................................11.1Legal disclaimer ....................................................................... 11.2Usage statistics ........................................................................ 11.3Changes to registry ................................................................... 11.4U.S. Government Regulations...................................................... 11.5Copyright ................................................................................ 11.6Quality assurance ..................................................................... 11.7Patents ................................................................................... 11.8EULA Terms ............................................................................ 11.9EULA Terms ............................................................................ 1Safety information .............................................................................3Notice to user ...................................................................................73.1User-to-user forums .................................................................. 73.2Calibration............................................................................... 73.3Accuracy ................................................................................ 73.4Disposal of electronic waste ........................................................ 73.5Training .................................................................................. 73.6Documentation updates ............................................................. 73.7Important note about this manual.................................................. 73.8Note about authoritative versions.................................................. 8Customer help ..................................................................................94.1General .................................................................................. 94.2Submitting a question ................................................................ 94.3Downloads ............................................................................ 10Quick Start Guide ............................................................................ 115.1Procedure ............................................................................. 11List of accessories and services ....................................................... 12Description ..................................................................................... 137.1Camera parts ......................................................................... 137.1.1 Figure ........................................................................ 137.1.2 Explanation................................................................. 137.2Keypad................................................................................. 147.2.1 Figure ........................................................................ 147.2.2 Explanation................................................................. 147.3Connectors ........................................................................... 157.3.1 Figure ........................................................................ 157.3.2 Explanation................................................................. 157.4Screen elements .................................................................... 157.4.1 Figure ........................................................................ 157.4.2 Explanation................................................................. 15Operation ....................................................................................... 168.1Charging the battery ................................................................ 168.1.1 Charging the battery using the FLIR power supply ............... 168.1.2 Charging the battery using the FLIR stand-alone batterycharger. ..................................................................... 168.1.3 Charging the battery using a USB cable ............................ 168.2Turning on and turning off the camera.......................................... 178.3Saving an image ..................................................................... 178.3.1 General...................................................................... 178.3.2 Image capacity ............................................................ 178.3.3 Naming convention....................................................... 178.3.4 Procedure .................................................................. 178.4Recalling an image.................................................................. 178.4.1 General...................................................................... 17#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-USTable of contents8.58.68.78.88.98.108.118.128.138.148.158.168.178.188.198.208.218.4.2 Procedure .................................................................. 17Deleting an image ................................................................... 188.5.1 General...................................................................... 188.5.2 Procedure .................................................................. 18Deleting all images.................................................................. 188.6.1 General...................................................................... 188.6.2 Procedure .................................................................. 18Measuring a temperature using a spotmeter ................................. 188.7.1 General...................................................................... 188.7.2 Procedure .................................................................. 18Measuring the hottest temperature within an area .......................... 188.8.1 General...................................................................... 188.8.2 Procedure .................................................................. 19Measuring the coldest temperature within an area.......................... 198.9.1 General...................................................................... 198.9.2 Procedure .................................................................. 19Hiding measurement tools ........................................................ 198.10.1 Procedure .................................................................. 19Changing the color palette ........................................................ 198.11.1 General...................................................................... 198.11.2 Procedure .................................................................. 19Working with color alarms ......................................................... 198.12.1 General...................................................................... 198.12.2 Image examples .......................................................... 208.12.3 Procedure .................................................................. 20Changing image mode ............................................................. 218.13.1 General...................................................................... 218.13.2 Procedure .................................................................. 22Changing the temperature scale mode ........................................ 228.14.1 General...................................................................... 228.14.2 When to use Lock mode ................................................ 228.14.3 When to use Manual mode............................................. 238.14.4 Procedure .................................................................. 23Setting the emissivity as a surface property .................................. 248.15.1 General...................................................................... 248.15.2 Procedure .................................................................. 24Setting the emissivity as a custom material ................................... 248.16.1 General...................................................................... 248.16.2 Procedure .................................................................. 24Changing the emissivity as a custom value ................................... 258.17.1 General...................................................................... 258.17.2 Procedure .................................................................. 25Changing the reflected apparent temperature ............................... 258.18.1 General...................................................................... 258.18.2 Procedure .................................................................. 25Changing the distance between the object and the camera .............. 258.19.1 General...................................................................... 258.19.2 Procedure .................................................................. 26Performing a non-uniformity correction (NUC) ............................... 268.20.1 What is a non-uniformity correction?................................. 268.20.2 When to perform a non-uniformity correction? .................... 268.20.3 Procedure .................................................................. 26Configuring Wi-Fi .................................................................... 268.21.1 Setting up a peer-to-peer connection (most commonuse) .......................................................................... 26#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-USviTable of contents8.228.238.21.2 Connecting the camera to a wireless local area network(less common use) ....................................................... 27Changing the settings .............................................................. 278.22.1 General...................................................................... 278.22.2 Procedure .................................................................. 28Updating the camera ............................................................... 288.23.1 General...................................................................... 288.23.2 Procedure .................................................................. 28Technical data ................................................................................. 299.1Online field-of-view calculator .................................................... 299.2Note about technical data ......................................................... 299.3Note about authoritative versions................................................ 299.4FLIR E4 ................................................................................ 309.5FLIR E4 (incl. Wi-Fi) ................................................................ 339.6FLIR E5 ................................................................................ 369.7FLIR E5 (incl. Wi-Fi) ................................................................ 399.8FLIR E6 ................................................................................ 429.9FLIR E6 (incl. Wi-Fi) ................................................................ 459.10FLIR E8 ................................................................................ 489.11FLIR E8 (incl. Wi-Fi) ................................................................ 5110Mechanical drawings ....................................................................... 5411CE Declaration of conformity ............................................................ 5712Cleaning the camera ........................................................................ 5912.1Camera housing, cables, and other items..................................... 5912.1.1 Liquids....................................................................... 5912.1.2 Equipment .................................................................. 5912.1.3 Procedure .................................................................. 5912.2Infrared lens .......................................................................... 5912.2.1 Liquids....................................................................... 5912.2.2 Equipment .................................................................. 5912.2.3 Procedure .................................................................. 5913Application examples....................................................................... 6013.1Moisture & water damage ......................................................... 6013.1.1 General...................................................................... 6013.1.2 Figure ........................................................................ 6013.2Faulty contact in socket ............................................................ 6013.2.1 General...................................................................... 6013.2.2 Figure ........................................................................ 6013.3Oxidized socket...................................................................... 6113.3.1 General...................................................................... 6113.3.2 Figure ........................................................................ 6113.4Insulation deficiencies.............................................................. 6213.4.1 General...................................................................... 6213.4.2 Figure ........................................................................ 6213.5Draft .................................................................................... 6213.5.1 General...................................................................... 6213.5.2 Figure ........................................................................ 6214About FLIR Systems ........................................................................ 6414.1More than just an infrared camera .............................................. 6514.2Sharing our knowledge ............................................................ 6514.3Supporting our customers......................................................... 6615Definitions and laws ........................................................................ 6716Thermographic measurement techniques .......................................... 6916.1Introduction .......................................................................... 69#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-USviiTable of contents16.216.316.416.516.6Emissivity.............................................................................. 6916.2.1 Finding the emissivity of a sample .................................... 69Reflected apparent temperature................................................. 73Distance ............................................................................... 73Relative humidity .................................................................... 73Other parameters.................................................................... 7317History of infrared technology........................................................... 7418Theory of thermography................................................................... 7718.1Introduction ........................................................................... 7718.2The electromagnetic spectrum................................................... 7718.3Blackbody radiation................................................................. 7718.3.1 Planck’s law ................................................................ 7818.3.2 Wien’s displacement law................................................ 7918.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann's law ................................................. 8018.3.4 Non-blackbody emitters................................................. 8118.4Infrared semi-transparent materials............................................. 8319The measurement formula................................................................ 8420Emissivity tables ............................................................................. 8820.1References............................................................................ 8820.2Tables .................................................................................. 88#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-USviii1Disclaimers1.1 Legal disclaimer1.7 PatentsAll products manufactured by FLIR Systems are warranted against defectivematerials and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the delivery dateof the original purchase, provided such products have been under normalstorage, use and service, and in accordance with FLIR Systems instruction.One or several of the following patents and/or design patents may apply tothe products and/or features. Additional pending patents and/or pending design patents may also apply.Uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by FLIR Systems arewarranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period of two(2) years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, and in accordancewith FLIR Systems instruction, and provided that the camera has been registered within 60 days of original purchase.Detectors for uncooled handheld infrared cameras manufactured by FLIRSystems are warranted against defective materials and workmanship for aperiod of ten (10) years from the delivery date of the original purchase, provided such products have been under normal storage, use and service, andin accordance with FLIR Systems instruction, and provided that the camerahas been registered within 60 days of original purchase.Products which are not manufactured by FLIR Systems but included in systems delivered by FLIR Systems to the original purchaser, carry the warranty,if any, of the particular supplier only. FLIR Systems has no responsibilitywhatsoever for such products.The warranty extends only to the original purchaser and is not transferable. Itis not applicable to any product which has been subjected to misuse, neglect,accident or abnormal conditions of operation. Expendable parts are excludedfrom the warranty.In the case of a defect in a product covered by this warranty the product mustnot be further used in order to prevent additional damage. The purchasershall promptly report any defect to FLIR Systems or this warranty will notapply.FLIR Systems will, at its option, repair or replace any such defective productfree of charge if, upon inspection, it proves to be defective in material or workmanship and provided that it is returned to FLIR Systems within the said oneyear period.000279476-0001; 000439161; 000499579-0001; 000653423; 000726344;000859020; 001106306-0001; 001707738; 001707746; 001707787;001776519; 001954074; 002021543; 002058180; 002249953; 002531178;0600574-8; 1144833; 1182246; 1182620; 1285345; 1299699; 1325808;1336775; 1391114; 1402918; 1404291; 1411581; 1415075; 1421497;1458284; 1678485; 1732314; 2106017; 2107799; 2381417; 3006596;3006597; 466540; 483782; 484155; 4889913; 5177595; 60122153.2;602004011681.5-08; 6707044; 68657; 7034300; 7110035; 7154093;7157705; 7237946; 7312822; 7332716; 7336823; 7544944; 7667198;7809258 B2; 7826736; 8,153,971; 8,823,803; 8,853,631; 8018649 B2;8212210 B2; 8289372; 8354639 B2; 8384783; 8520970; 8565547; 8595689;8599262; 8654239; 8680468; 8803093; D540838; D549758; D579475;D584755; D599,392; D615,113; D664,580; D664,581; D665,004; D665,440;D677298; D710,424 S; D718801; DI6702302-9; DI6903617-9; DI7002221-6;DI7002891-5; DI7002892-3; DI7005799-0; DM/057692; DM/061609; EP2115696 B1; EP2315433; SE 0700240-5; US 8340414 B2; ZL201330267619.5; ZL01823221.3; ZL01823226.4; ZL02331553.9;ZL02331554.7; ZL200480034894.0; ZL200530120994.2;ZL200610088759.5; ZL200630130114.4; ZL200730151141.4;ZL200730339504.7; ZL200820105768.8; ZL200830128581.2;ZL200880105236.4; ZL200880105769.2; ZL200930190061.9;ZL201030176127.1; ZL201030176130.3; ZL201030176157.2;ZL201030595931.3; ZL201130442354.9; ZL201230471744.3;ZL201230620731.8.1.8 EULA Terms•FLIR Systems has no other obligation or liability for defects than those setforth above.No other warranty is expressed or implied. FLIR Systems specifically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particularpurpose.•FLIR Systems shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental orconsequential loss or damage, whether based on contract, tort or any otherlegal theory.This warranty shall be governed by Swedish law.Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in connection with this warranty, shall be finally settled by arbitration in accordance with the Rules of theArbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce. The place of arbitration shall be Stockholm. The language to be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be English.•You have acquired a device (“INFRARED CAMERA”) that includes software licensed by FLIR Systems AB from Microsoft Licensing, GP or itsaffiliates (“MS”). Those installed software products of MS origin, as wellas associated media, printed materials, and “online” or electronic documentation (“SOFTWARE”) are protected by international intellectualproperty laws and treaties. The SOFTWARE is licensed, not sold. Allrights reserved.IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THIS END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT(“EULA”), DO NOT USE THE DEVICE OR COPY THE SOFTWARE. INSTEAD, PROMPTLY CONTACT FLIR Systems AB FOR INSTRUCTIONS ON RETURN OF THE UNUSED DEVICE(S) FOR A REFUND.ANY USE OF THE SOFTWARE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TOUSE ON THE DEVICE, WILL CONSTITUTE YOUR AGREEMENT TOTHIS EULA (OR RATIFICATION OF ANY PREVIOUS CONSENT).GRANT OF SOFTWARE LICENSE. This EULA grants you the followinglicense:◦◦1.2 Usage statisticsFLIR Systems reserves the right to gather anonymous usage statistics to helpmaintain and improve the quality of our software and services.◦1.3 Changes to registryThe registry entry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\LmCompatibilityLevel will be automatically changed to level 2 ifthe FLIR Camera Monitor service detects a FLIR camera connected to thecomputer with a USB cable. The modification will only be executed if thecamera device implements a remote network service that supports networklogons.◦1.4 U.S. Government RegulationsThis product may be subject to U.S. Export Regulations. Please send any inquiries to exportquestions@flir.com.1.5 Copyright© 2016, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No parts of thesoftware including source code may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribedor translated into any language or computer language in any form or by anymeans, electronic, magnetic, optical, manual or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of FLIR Systems.The documentation must not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or transmitted to any electronic medium or machinereadable form without prior consent, in writing, from FLIR Systems.Names and marks appearing on the products herein are either registeredtrademarks or trademarks of FLIR Systems and/or its subsidiaries. All othertrademarks, trade names or company names referenced herein are used foridentification only and are the property of their respective owners.1.6 Quality assuranceThe Quality Management System under which these products are developedand manufactured has been certified in accordance with the ISO 9001standard.FLIR Systems is committed to a policy of continuous development; thereforewe reserve the right to make changes and improvements on any of the products without prior notice.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US◦◦◦You may use the SOFTWARE only on the DEVICE.NOT FAULT TOLERANT. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. FLIR Systems AB HAS INDEPENDENTLY DETERMINEDHOW TO USE THE SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND MS HASRELIED UPON FLIR Systems AB TO CONDUCT SUFFICIENTTESTING TO DETERMINE THAT THE SOFTWARE IS SUITABLEFOR SUCH USE.NO WARRANTIES FOR THE SOFTWARE. THE SOFTWARE isprovided “AS IS” and with all faults. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TOSATISFACTORY QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, ANDEFFORT (INCLUDING LACK OF NEGLIGENCE) IS WITH YOU.ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST INTERFERENCEWITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR AGAINSTINFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIESREGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE, THOSE WARRANTIES DO NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT BINDINGON, MS.No Liability for Certain Damages. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BYLAW, MS SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ANY INDIRECT,SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGESARISING FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. THIS LIMITATION SHALLAPPLY EVEN IF ANY REMEDY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL MS BE LIABLE FOR ANYAMOUNT IN EXCESS OF U.S. TWO HUNDRED FIFTY DOLLARS (U.S.$250.00).Limitations on Reverse Engineering, Decompilation, and Disassembly. You may not reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble the SOFTWARE, except and only to the extent that suchactivity is expressly permitted by applicable law notwithstandingthis limitation.SOFTWARE TRANSFER ALLOWED BUT WITH RESTRICTIONS. You may permanently transfer rights under this EULA onlyas part of a permanent sale or transfer of the Device, and only ifthe recipient agrees to this EULA. If the SOFTWARE is an upgrade, any transfer must also include all prior versions of theSOFTWARE.EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You acknowledge that SOFTWARE issubject to U.S. export jurisdiction. You agree to comply with all applicable international and national laws that apply to the SOFTWARE, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, aswell as end-user, end-use and destination restrictions issued by U.S. and other governments. For additional information see http://www.microsoft.com/exporting/.1.9 EULA TermsQt4 Core and Qt4 GUI, Copyright ©2013 Nokia Corporation and FLIR Systems AB. This Qt library is a free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as publishedby the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at youroption) any later version. This library is distributed in the hope that it will beuseful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty ofMERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See theGNU Lesser General Public License, http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.1Disclaimershtml. The source code for the libraries Qt4 Core and Qt4 GUI may be requested from FLIR Systems AB.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US2Safety informationWARNINGApplicability: Class B digital devices.This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection againstharmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radiofrequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmfulinterference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur ina particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:••••Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver isconnected.Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.WARNINGApplicability: Digital devices subject to 15.19/RSS-210.NOTICE: This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules and with RSS-210 of Industry Canada.Operation is subject to the following two conditions:1.2.this device may not cause harmful interference, andthis device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesiredoperation.WARNINGApplicability: Digital devices subject to 15.21.NOTICE: Changes or modifications made to this equipment not expressly approved by FLIR Systemsmay void the FCC authorization to operate this equipment.WARNINGApplicability: Digital devices subject to 2.1091/2.1093/OET Bulletin 65.Radiofrequency radiation exposure Information: The radiated output power of the device is belowthe FCC/IC radio frequency exposure limits. Nevertheless, the device shall be used in such a mannerthat the potential for human contact during normal operation is minimized.WARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not disassemble or do a modification to the battery. The battery contains safety and protection devices which, if damage occurs, can cause the battery to become hot, or cause an explosion or an ignition.WARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.If there is a leak from the battery and you get the fluid in your eyes, do not rub your eyes. Flush well withwater and immediately get medical care. The battery fluid can cause injury to your eyes if you do not dothis.WARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not continue to charge the battery if it does not become charged in the specified charging time. Ifyou continue to charge the battery, it can become hot and cause an explosion or ignition. Injury to persons can occur.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US2Safety informationWARNINGApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Only use the correct equipment to remove the electrical power from the battery. If you do not use thecorrect equipment, you can decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery. If you do not usethe correct equipment, an incorrect flow of current to the battery can occur. This can cause the batteryto become hot, or cause an explosion. Injury to persons can occur.WARNINGMake sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid. The liquids can be dangerous. Injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONDo not point the infrared camera (with or without the lens cover) at strong energy sources, for example,devices that cause laser radiation, or the sun. This can have an unwanted effect on the accuracy of thecamera. It can also cause damage to the detector in the camera.CAUTIONDo not use the camera in temperatures more than +50°C (+122°F), unless other information is specifiedin the user documentation or technical data. High temperatures can cause damage to the camera.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not attach the batteries directly to a car’s cigarette lighter socket, unless FLIR Systems supplies aspecific adapter to connect the batteries to a cigarette lighter socket. Damage to the batteries canoccur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not connect the positive terminal and the negative terminal of the battery to each other with a metalobject (such as wire). Damage to the batteries can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not get water or salt water on the battery, or permit the battery to become wet. Damage to the batteries can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not make holes in the battery with objects. Damage to the battery can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not hit the battery with a hammer. Damage to the battery can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put your foot on the battery, hit it or cause shocks to it. Damage to the battery can occur.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US2Safety informationCAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put the batteries in or near a fire, or into direct sunlight. When the battery becomes hot, the builtin safety equipment becomes energized and can stop the battery charging procedure. If the battery becomes hot, damage can occur to the safety equipment and this can cause more heat, damage or ignition of the battery.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put the battery on a fire or increase the temperature of the battery with heat. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not put the battery on or near fires, stoves, or other high-temperature locations. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not solder directly onto the battery. Damage to the battery can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Do not use the battery if, when you use, charge, or put the battery in storage, there is an unusual smellfrom the battery, the battery feels hot, changes color, changes shape, or is in an unusual condition.Speak with your sales office if one or more of these problems occurs. Damage to the battery and injuryto persons can occur.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Only use a specified battery charger when you charge the battery. Damage to the battery can occur ifyou do not do this.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Only use a specified battery for the camera. Damage to the camera and the battery can occur if you donot do this.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.The temperature range through which you can charge the battery is +10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F).If you charge the battery at temperatures out of this range, it can cause the battery to become hot or tobreak. It can also decrease the performance or the life cycle of the battery.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.The temperature range through which you can remove the electrical power from the battery is -15°C to+50°C (+5°F to +122°F), unless other information is specified in the user documentation or technicaldata. If you operate the battery out of this temperature range, it can decrease the performance or the lifecycle of the battery.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US2Safety informationCAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.When the battery is worn, apply insulation to the terminals with adhesive tape or equivalent materialsbefore you discard it. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur if you do not do this.CAUTIONApplicability: Cameras with one or more batteries.Remove any water or moisture on the battery before you install it. Damage to the battery can occur ifyou do not do this.CAUTIONDo not apply solvents or equivalent liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. Damage to the battery and injury to persons can occur.CAUTIONBe careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has an anti-reflective coating which is easily damaged. Damage to the infrared lens can occur.CAUTIONDo not use too much force to clean the infrared lens. This can cause damage to the anti-reflectivecoating.Note The encapsulation rating is only applicable when all the openings on the cameraare sealed with their correct covers, hatches, or caps. This includes the compartmentsfor data storage, batteries, and connectors.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US3Notice to user3.1User-to-user forumsExchange ideas, problems, and infrared solutions with fellow thermographers around theworld in our user-to-user forums. To go to the forums, visit:http://forum.infraredtraining.com/3.2CalibrationWe recommend that you send in the camera for calibration once a year. Contact your local sales office for instructions on where to send the camera.3.3AccuracyFor very accurate results, we recommend that you wait 5 minutes after you have startedthe camera before measuring a temperature.3.4Disposal of electronic wasteAs with most electronic products, this equipment must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly way, and in accordance with existing regulations for electronic waste.Please contact your FLIR Systems representative for more details.3.5TrainingTo read about infrared training, visit:• http://www.infraredtraining.com• http://www.irtraining.com• http://www.irtraining.eu3.6Documentation updatesOur manuals are updated several times per year, and we also issue product-critical notifications of changes on a regular basis.To access the latest manuals, translations of manuals, and notifications, go to the Download tab at:http://support.flir.comIt only takes a few minutes to register online. In the download area you will also find thelatest releases of manuals for our other products, as well as manuals for our historicaland obsolete products.3.7Important note about this manualFLIR Systems issues generic manuals that cover several cameras within a model line.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US3Notice to userThis means that this manual may contain descriptions and explanations that do not applyto your particular camera model.3.8Note about authoritative versionsThe authoritative version of this publication is English. In the event of divergences due totranslation errors, the English text has precedence.Any late changes are first implemented in English.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US4Customer help4.1GeneralFor customer help, visit:http://support.flir.com4.2Submitting a questionTo submit a question to the customer help team, you must be a registered user. It onlytakes a few minutes to register online. If you only want to search the knowledgebase forexisting questions and answers, you do not need to be a registered user.When you want to submit a question, make sure that you have the following informationto hand:• The camera model• The camera serial number• The communication protocol, or method, between the camera and your device (for example, SD card reader, HDMI, Ethernet, USB, or FireWire)• Device type (PC/Mac/iPhone/iPad/Android device, etc.)• Version of any programs from FLIR Systems#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US4Customer help• Full name, publication number, and revision number of the manual4.3DownloadsOn the customer help site you can also download the following, when applicable for theproduct:•••••••••Firmware updates for your infrared camera.Program updates for your PC/Mac software.Freeware and evaluation versions of PC/Mac software.User documentation for current, obsolete, and historical products.Mechanical drawings (in *.dxf and *.pdf format).Cad data models (in *.stp format).Application stories.Technical datasheets.Product catalogs.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US105Quick Start Guide5.1ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Charge the battery. You can do this in three different ways:• Charge the battery using the FLIR stand-alone battery charger.• Charge the battery using the FLIR power supply.• Charge the battery using a USB cable connected to a computer.Note Charging the camera using a USB cable connected to a computer takesconsiderably longer than using the FLIR power supply or the FLIR stand-alonebattery charger.2.3.4.5.Push the On/off buttonto turn on the camera.Open the lens cap by pushing the lens cap lever.Aim the camera toward your target of interest.Pull the trigger to save an image.(Optional steps)6. Install FLIR Tools on your computer.7. Start FLIR Tools.8. Connect the camera to your computer, using the USB cable.9. Import the images into FLIR Tools.10. Create a PDF report in FLIR Tools.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US116List of accessories and servicesProduct namePart numberBatteryT198530Battery charger incl power supplyT198531Car chargerT198532FLIR Tools+ (license only)T198583Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198528One year extended warranty for Ex or ix seriesT199806Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198529Power supply USB-microT198534Tool beltT911093USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT198533Note FLIR Systems reserves the right to discontinue models, parts or accessories,and other items, or to change specifications at any time without prior notice.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US127Description7.1Camera parts7.1.1 Figure7.1.2 Explanation1.2.3.4.5.Digital camera lens.Infrared lens.Lever to open and close the lens cap.Trigger to save images.Battery.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US137Description7.2Keypad7.2.1 Figure7.2.2 Explanation1. Camera screen.2. Archive buttonFunction:• Push to open the image archive.3. Navigation pad.Function:• Push left/right or up/down to navigate in menus, submenus, and dialog boxes.• Push the center to confirm.4. Cancel buttonFunction:• Push to cancel a choice.• Push to go back into the menu system.5. On/off buttonFunction:• Push thebutton to turn on the camera.• Push and hold thebutton for less than 5 seconds to put the camera in standbymode. The camera then automatically turns off after 48 hours.• Push and hold thebutton for more than 10 seconds to turn off the camera.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US147Description7.3Connectors7.3.1 Figure7.3.2 ExplanationThe purpose of this USB mini-B connector is the following:• Charging the battery using the FLIR power supply.• Charging the battery using a USB cable connected to a computer.Note Charging the camera using a USB cable connected to a computer takes considerably longer than using the FLIR power supply or the FLIR stand-alone batterycharger.• Moving images from the camera to a computer for further analysis in FLIR Tools.Note7.4Install FLIR Tools on your computer before you move the images.Screen elements7.4.1 Figure7.4.2 Explanation1.2.3.4.5.6.Main menu toolbar.Submenu toolbar.Spotmeter.Result table.Status icons.Temperature scale.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US158Operation8.1Charging the batteryWARNINGFor equipment with plugs:Make sure that you install the socket-outlet near the equipment and that it is easy to get access to.8.1.1 Charging the battery using the FLIR power supplyFollow this procedure:1. Connect the power supply to a wall outlet.2. Connect the power supply cable to the USB connector on the camera.NOTEThe charging time for a fully depleted battery is 2 hours.8.1.2 Charging the battery using the FLIR stand-alone battery charger.Follow this procedure:1. Connect the stand-alone battery charger to a wall outlet.2. Remove the battery from the camera.3. Put the battery into the stand-alone battery charger.NOTE•••The charging time for a fully depleted battery is 2 hours.The battery is being charged when the blue LED is flashing.The battery is fully charged when the blue LED is continuous.8.1.3 Charging the battery using a USB cableFollow this procedure:1. Connect the camera to a computer using a USB cable.NOTE••To charge the camera, the computer must be turned on.Charging the camera using a USB cable connected to a computer takes considerably longer thanusing the FLIR power supply or the FLIR stand-alone battery charger.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US168Operation8.2Turning on and turning off the camera• Push thebutton to turn on the camera.• Push and hold thebutton for less than 5 seconds to put the camera in standbymode. The camera then automatically turns off after 48 hours.• Push and hold the8.3button for more than 10 seconds to turn off the camera.Saving an image8.3.1 GeneralYou can save multiple images to the internal camera memory.8.3.2 Image capacityApproximately 500 images can be saved to the internal camera memory.8.3.3 Naming conventionThe naming convention for images is FLIRxxxx.jpg, where xxxx is a unique counter.8.3.4 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. To save an image, pull the trigger.8.4Recalling an image8.4.1 GeneralWhen you save an image, it is stored in the internal camera memory. To display the image again, you can recall it from the internal camera memory.8.4.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the Archive button2. Push the navigation pad left/right or up/down to select the image you want to view.3. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays the selected image.4. To return to live mode, push the Cancel buttonbuttonrepeatedly or push the Archive#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US178Operation8.5Deleting an image8.5.1 GeneralYou can delete one or more images from the internal camera memory.8.5.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1.2.3.4.Push the Archive buttonPush the navigation pad left/right or up/down to select the image you want to view.Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays the selected image.Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.5. On the toolbar, select Delete8.6Deleting all images8.6.1 GeneralYou can delete all images from the internal camera memory.8.6.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2.3.4.5.On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Device settings. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Reset options. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Delete all saved images.8.7 Measuring a temperature using aspotmeter8.7.1 GeneralYou can measure a temperature using a spotmeter. This will display the temperature atthe position of the spotmeter on the screen.8.7.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Measurement. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select Center spotThe temperature at the position of the spotmeter will now be displayed in the top leftcorner of the screen.8.8 Measuring the hottest temperature withinan area8.8.1 GeneralYou can measure the hottest temperature within an area. This displays a moving spotmeter that indicates the hottest temperature.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US188Operation8.8.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Measurement. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select Auto hot spot8.9 Measuring the coldest temperature withinan area8.9.1 GeneralYou can measure the coldest temperature within an area. This displays a moving spotmeter that indicates the coldest temperature.8.9.2 ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Measurement3. On the toolbar, select Auto cold spot. This displays a toolbar.8.10 Hiding measurement tools8.10.1ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Measurement. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select No measurements8.11 Changing the color palette8.11.1GeneralYou can change the color palette that the camera uses to display different temperatures.A different palette can make it easier to analyze an image.8.11.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Color. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select a new color palette.8.12 Working with color alarms8.12.1GeneralBy using color alarms (isotherms), anomalies can easily be discovered in an infrared image. The isotherm command applies a contrasting color to all pixels with a temperatureabove or below the specified temperature level.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US198Operation8.12.2Image examplesThis table explains the different color alarms (isotherms).ImageColor alarmBelow alarmAbove alarm8.12.3ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Color. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select the type of alarm:• Below alarm• Above alarm4. Push the center of the navigation pad. The threshold temperature is displayed at thebottom of the screen.5. To change the threshold temperature, push the navigation pad up/down.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US208Operation8.13 Changing image mode8.13.1GeneralThe camera can operate in five different image modes:• Thermal MSX (Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging): The camera displays an infrared image where the edges of the objects are enhanced.• Thermal: The camera displays a fully thermal image.• Picture-in-picture: The camera displays a digital camera image with a superimposedinfrared image frame.• Thermal blending: The camera displays a blended image that uses a mix of infraredpixels and digital photo pixels. The mixing level can be adjusted.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US218Operation• Digital camera: The camera displays a digital camera image.To display a good fusion image (Thermal MSX, Picture-in-picture, and Thermal blendingmodes), the camera must make adjustments to compensate for the small difference inposition between the digital camera lens and the infrared lens. To adjust the image accurately, the camera requires the alignment distance (i.e., the distance to the object).8.13.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Image mode. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select one of the following:• Thermal MSX• Thermal• Picture-in-picture• Thermal blending. This displays a dialog box where you can select the mixinglevel.• Digital camera4. If you have selected the Thermal MSX, Picture-in-picture, or Thermal blending mode,also set the distance to the object by doing the following:• On the Image mode toolbar, select Alignment distancebox.• In the dialog box, select the distance to the object.. This displays a dialog8.14 Changing the temperature scale mode8.14.1GeneralThe camera can, depending on the camera model, operate in different temperature scalemodes:• Auto mode: In this mode, the camera is continuously auto-adjusted for the best imagebrightness and contrast.• Lock mode: In this mode, the camera locks the temperature span and the temperaturelevel.• Manual mode: This mode allows manual adjustments of the temperature span andthe temperature level.8.14.2When to use Lock modeA typical situation where you would want to use Lock mode is when looking for temperature anomalies in two items with a similar design or construction.For example, if you are looking at two cables, where you suspect one is overheated,working in Lock mode will clearly show that one is overheated. The higher temperature inthat cable would create a lighter color for the higher temperature.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US228OperationIf you use Auto mode instead, the color for the two items will appear the same.8.14.3When to use Manual mode8.14.3.1Example 1Here are two infrared images of a building. In the left image, which is auto-adjusted, thelarge temperature span between the clear sky and the heated building makes a correctanalysis difficult. You can analyze the building in more detail if you change the temperature scale to values close to the temperature of the building.Automatic8.14.3.2ManualExample 2Here are two infrared images of an isolator in a power line. To make it easier to analyzethe temperature variations in the isolator, the temperature scale in the right image hasbeen changed to values close to the temperature of the isolator.Automatic8.14.4ManualProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Temperature scale. This displays a toolbar.3. On the toolbar, select one of the following:• Auto• Lock• Manual#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US238Operation4. To change the temperature span and the temperature level in Manual mode, do thefollowing:• Push the navigation pad left/right to select (highlight) the maximum and/or minimum temperature.• Push the navigation pad up/down to change the value of the highlightedtemperature.8.15 Setting the emissivity as a surfaceproperty8.15.1GeneralTo measure temperatures accurately, the camera must know what kind of surface youare measuring. You can choose between the following surface properties:• Matt.• Semi-matt.• Semi-glossy.For more information about emissivity, see section 16 Thermographic measurementtechniques, page 69.8.15.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2.3.4.5.On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select one of the following:• Matt.• Semi-matt.• Semi-glossy.8.16 Setting the emissivity as a custommaterial8.16.1GeneralInstead of specifying a surface property as matt, semi-matt or semi-glossy, you can specify a custom material from a list of materials.For more information about emissivity, see section 16 Thermographic measurementtechniques, page 69.8.16.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2.3.4.5.On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Custom material. This displays a list of materials with knownemissivities.6. In the list, select the material.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US248Operation8.17 Changing the emissivity as a customvalue8.17.1GeneralFor very precise measurements, you may need to set the emissivity, instead of selectinga surface property or a custom material. You also need to understand how emissivity andreflectivity affect measurements, rather than just simply selecting a surface property.Emissivity is a property that indicates how much radiation originates from an object asopposed to being reflected by it. A lower value indicates that a larger proportion is beingreflected, while a high value indicates that a lower proportion is being reflected.Polished stainless steel, for example, has an emissivity of 0.14, while a structured PVCfloor typically has an emissivity of 0.93.For more information about emissivity, see section 16 Thermographic measurementtechniques, page 69.8.17.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2.3.4.5.On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Emissivity. This displays a dialog box.In the dialog box, select Custom value. This displays a dialog box where you can seta custom value.8.18 Changing the reflected apparenttemperature8.18.1GeneralThis parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected by the object. If theemissivity is low and the object temperature significantly different from that of the reflected temperature, it will be important to set and compensate for the reflected apparenttemperature correctly.For more information about reflected apparent temperature, see section 16 Thermographic measurement techniques, page 69.8.18.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.4. In the dialog box, select Reflected apparent temperature. This displays a dialog boxwhere you can set a value.8.19 Changing the distance between the objectand the camera8.19.1GeneralTo measure temperatures accurately, the camera requires the distance between thecamera and the object.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US258Operation8.19.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, select Measurement parameters. This displays a dialog box.4. In the dialog box, select Distance. This displays a dialog box where you can select adistance.8.20 Performing a non-uniformity correction(NUC)8.20.1What is a non-uniformity correction?A non-uniformity correction is an image correction carried out by the camera software tocompensate for different sensitivities of detector elements and other optical and geometrical disturbances1.8.20.2When to perform a non-uniformity correction?The non-uniformity correction process should be carried out whenever the output imagebecomes spatially noisy. The output can become spatially noisy when the ambient temperature changes (such as from day to night operation, and vice versa).8.20.3ProcedureTo perform a non-uniformity correction, push and hold the Image archive buttonmore than 2 seconds.for8.21 Configuring Wi-FiDepending on your camera configuration, you can connect the camera to a wireless localarea network (WLAN) using Wi-Fi, or let the camera provide Wi-Fi access to anotherdevice.You can connect the camera in two different ways:• Most common use: Setting up a peer-to-peer connection (also called an ad hoc orP2P connection). This method is primarily used with other devices, e.g., an iPhone oriPad.• Less common use: Connecting the camera to a WLAN.8.21.1Setting up a peer-to-peer connection (most common use)Follow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2.3.4.5.On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.Select Device settings and push the center of the navigation pad.Select Wi-Fi and push the center of the navigation pad.Select Share and push the center of the navigation pad.1. Definition from the impending international adoption of DIN 54190-3 (Non-destructive testing – Thermographictesting – Part 3: Terms and definitions).#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US268Operation6. (Optional step.) To display and change the parameters, select Settings and push thecenter of the navigation pad.• To change the channel (the channel that the camera is broadcasting on), selectChannel and push the center of the navigation pad.• To activate WEP (encryption algorithm), select WEP and push the center of thenavigation pad. This will check the WEP check box.• To change the WEP password, select Password and push the center of the navigation pad.Note These parameters are set for your camera’s network. They will be used by theexternal device to connect that device to the network.8.21.2use)Connecting the camera to a wireless local area network (less commonFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2.3.4.5.6.On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.Select Device settings and push the center of the navigation pad.Select Wi-Fi and push the center of the navigation pad.Select Connect to network and push the center of the navigation pad.To display a list of the available networks, select Networks and push the center of thenavigation pad.7. Select one of the available networks.Password-protected networks are indicated with a padlock icon, and for these youwill need to enter a password.Note Some networks do not broadcast their existence. To connect to such a network,select Add network... and set all parameters manually according to that network.8.22 Changing the settings8.22.1GeneralYou can change a variety of settings for the camera.The Settings menu includes the following:• Measurement parameters.• Save options.• Device settings.8.22.1.1Measurement parameters• Emissivity.• Reflected temperature.• Distance.8.22.1.2Save options• Photo as separate JPEG: When this menu command is selected, the digital photofrom the visual camera is saved at its full field of view as a separate JPEG image.8.22.1.3Device settings• Language, time & units:◦◦◦◦◦Language.Temperature unit.Distance unit.Date & time.Date & time format.• Wi-Fi#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US278Operation◦ Off◦ Share◦ Connect to network– Networks• Reset options:◦ Reset default camera mode.◦ Reset device settings to factory default.◦ Delete all saved images.• Auto power off.• Display intensity.• Demonstration mode: This menu command provides a camera mode that displaysvarious images without any user interventions. The camera mode is intended for demonstration purposes or when displaying the camera in a store.◦ Off.◦ Electrical applications.◦ Building applications.• Camera information: This menu command displays various items of information aboutthe camera, such as the model, serial number, and software version.8.22.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Push the center of the navigation pad. This displays a toolbar.2. On the toolbar, select Settings. This displays a dialog box.3. In the dialog box, select the setting that you want to change and use the navigationpad to display additional dialog boxes.8.23 Updating the camera8.23.1GeneralTo take advantage of our latest camera firmware, it is important that you keep your camera updated. You update your camera using FLIR Tools.8.23.2ProcedureFollow this procedure:1.2.3.4.5.Start FLIR Tools.Start the camera.Connect the camera to the computer using the USB cable.On the Help menu in FLIR Tools, click Check for updates.Follow the on-screen instructions.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US289Technical dataTable of contents9.1Online field-of-view calculator........................................................... 299.2Note about technical data................................................................. 299.3Note about authoritative versions...................................................... 299.4FLIR E4 .......................................................................................... 309.5FLIR E4 (incl. Wi-Fi) ......................................................................... 339.6FLIR E5 .......................................................................................... 369.7FLIR E5 (incl. Wi-Fi) ......................................................................... 399.8FLIR E6 .......................................................................................... 429.9FLIR E6 (incl. Wi-Fi) ......................................................................... 459.10FLIR E8 .......................................................................................... 489.11FLIR E8 (incl. Wi-Fi) ......................................................................... 519.1Online field-of-view calculatorPlease visit http://support.flir.com and click the photo of the camera series for field-ofview tables for all lens–camera combinations.9.2Note about technical dataFLIR Systems reserves the right to change specifications at any time without prior notice.Please check http://support.flir.com for latest changes.9.3Note about authoritative versionsThe authoritative version of this publication is English. In the event of divergences due totranslation errors, the English text has precedence.Any late changes are first implemented in English.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US299Technical data9.4FLIR E4P/N: 63901-0101Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution80 × 60 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.15°C (0.27°F) / <150 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)10.3 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic adjust/lock imageImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Thermal blending, Digitalcamera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US309Technical dataMeasurement analysisEmissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac devicePower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidityEMC••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class BEncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US319Technical dataPhysical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (inside camera)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsPrinted documentationPackaging, weight2.9 kg (6.4 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254000995UPC-12845188004941Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US329Technical data9.5FLIR E4 (incl. Wi-Fi)P/N: 63906-0604Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution80 × 60 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.15°C (0.27°F) / <150 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)10.3 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic adjust/lock imageImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Picture-in-Picture, Thermal blending, Digital camera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationPicture-in-PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US339Technical dataMeasurement analysisIsothermAbove/below/intervalEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0Emissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac deviceWi-FiPeer-to-peer (ad hoc) or infrastructure (network)RadioWi-Fi••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmPower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US349Technical dataEnvironmental dataEMCRadio spectrum••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B•••ETSI EN 300 328FCC 47 CSR Part 15RSS-247 Issue 1EncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)Physical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (inside camera)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsPrinted documentationPackaging, weight2.9 kg (6.4 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254002869UPC-12845188014117Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US359Technical data9.6FLIR E5P/N: 63905-0501Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution120 × 90 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.10°C (0.27°F) / <100 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)6.9 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic adjust/lock imageImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Thermal blending, Digitalcamera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.Emissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US369Technical dataMeasurement analysisEmissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac devicePower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidityEMC••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class BEncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US379Technical dataPhysical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (inside camera)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsPrinted documentationPackaging, weight2.9 kg (6.4 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254001114UPC-12845188005146Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US389Technical data9.7FLIR E5 (incl. Wi-Fi)P/N: 63909-0904Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution120 × 90 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.10°C (0.27°F) / <100 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)6.9 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic adjust/lock imageImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Picture-in-Picture, Thermal blending, Digital camera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationPicture-in-PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US399Technical dataMeasurement analysisIsothermAbove/below/intervalEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0Emissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac deviceWi-FiPeer-to-peer (ad hoc) or infrastructure (network)RadioWi-Fi••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmPower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US409Technical dataEnvironmental dataEMCRadio spectrum••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmEncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)Physical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (inside camera)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsPrinted documentationPackaging, weight2.9 kg (6.4 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254002876UPC-12845188014124Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US419Technical data9.8FLIR E6P/N: 63902-0202Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution160 × 120 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.06°C (0.11°F) / <60 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)5.2 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic/ManualImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Picture-in-Picture, Thermal blending, Digital camera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationPicture in PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US429Technical dataMeasurement analysisEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0Emissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac devicePower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidityEMC••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class BEncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US439Technical dataPhysical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (inside camera)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsPrinted documentationPackaging, weight2.9 kg (6.4 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254001008UPC-12845188004958Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US449Technical data9.9FLIR E6 (incl. Wi-Fi)P/N: 63907-0704Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution160 × 120 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.06°C (0.11°F) / <60 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)5.2 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic/ManualImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Picture-in-Picture, Thermal blending, Digital camera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationPicture-in-PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US459Technical dataMeasurement analysisIsothermAbove/below/intervalEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0Emissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac deviceWi-FiPeer-to-peer (ad hoc) or infrastructure (network)RadioWi-Fi••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmPower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US469Technical dataEnvironmental dataEMCRadio spectrum••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B•••ETSI EN 300 328FCC 47 CSR Part 15RSS-247 Issue 1EncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)Physical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (inside camera)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsPrinted documentationPackaging, weight2.9 kg (6.4 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254002883UPC-12845188014131Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US479Technical data9.10 FLIR E8P/N: 63903-0303Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution320 × 240 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.06°C (0.11°F) / <60 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)2.6 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic/ManualImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Picture-in-Picture, Thermal blending, Digital camera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationPicture in PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US489Technical dataMeasurement analysisEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0Emissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac devicePower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidityEMC••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class BEncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US499Technical dataPhysical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box•••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (2x)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsBattery chargerPrinted documentationPackaging, weight3.13 kg (6.9 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254001015UPC-12845188004965Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US509Technical data9.11 FLIR E8 (incl. Wi-Fi)P/N: 63908-0805Rev.: 40418General descriptionThe FLIR Ex series cameras are point-and-shoot infrared cameras that give you access to the infraredworld. A FLIR Ex series camera is an affordable replacement for an infrared thermometer, providing athermal image with temperature information in every pixel. The new MSX and visual formats make thecameras incomparably easy to use.The FLIR Ex series cameras are user-friendly, compact, and rugged, for use in harsh environments.The wide field of view makes them the perfect choice for building applications.Benefits:•••Easy to use: The FLIR Ex series cameras are fully automatic and focus-free with an intuitive interface for simple measurements in thermal, visual, or MSX mode.Compact and rugged: The FLIR Ex series cameras’ low weight of 0.575 kg and the accessory beltpouch make them easy to bring along at all times. Their rugged design can withstand a 2 m droptest, and ensures reliability, even in harsh environments.Ground breaking affordability: The FLIR Ex series cameras are the most affordable infrared camerason the market.Imaging and optical dataIR resolution320 × 240 pixelsThermal sensitivity/NETD<0.06°C (0.11°F) / <60 mKField of view (FOV)45° × 34°Minimum focus distance0.5 m (1.6 ft.)Spatial resolution (IFOV)2.6 mradF-number1.5Image frequency9 HzFocusFocus freeDetector dataDetector typeFocal plane array (FPA), uncooledmicrobolometerSpectral range7.5–13 µmImage presentationDisplay3.0 in. 320 × 240 color LCDImage adjustmentAutomatic/ManualImage presentation modesImage modesThermal MSX, Thermal, Picture-in-Picture, Thermal blending, Digital camera.Multi Spectral Dynamic Imaging (MSX)IR image with enhanced detail presentationPicture-in-PictureIR area on visual imageMeasurementObject temperature range–20°C to +250°C (–4°F to +482°F)Accuracy±2°C (±3.6°F) or ±2% of reading, for ambient temperature 10°C to 35°C (+50°F to 95°F) and objecttemperature above +0°C (+32°F)Measurement analysisSpotmeterCenter spotAreaBox with max./min.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US519Technical dataMeasurement analysisIsothermAbove/below/intervalEmissivity correctionVariable from 0.1 to 1.0Emissivity tableEmissivity table of predefined materialsReflected apparent temperature correctionAutomatic, based on input of reflectedtemperatureSet-upColor palettesBlack and white, iron and rainbowSet-up commandsLocal adaptation of units, language, date and timeformatsStorage of imagesFile formatsStandard JPEG, 14-bit measurement dataincludedDigital cameraDigital camera, resolution640 × 480Digital camera, FOV55° × 43°Data communication interfacesInterfacesUSB Micro: Data transfer to and from PC andMac deviceWi-FiPeer-to-peer (ad hoc) or infrastructure (network)RadioWi-Fi••Standard: 802.11 b/g/nFrequency range:◦◦•2400–2480 MHz5150–5260 MHzMax. output power: 15 dBmPower systemBattery typeRechargeable Li ion batteryBattery voltage3.6 VBattery operating timeApprox. 4 hours at +25°C (+77°F) ambient temperature and typical useCharging systemBattery is charged inside the camera or in specificcharger.Charging time2.5 hours to 90% capacity in camera. 2 hours incharger.Charging temperature10°C to +45°C (+50°F to +113°F)Power managementAutomatic shut-downAC operationAC adapter, 90–260 VAC input, 5 VDC output tocameraEnvironmental dataOperating temperature range–15°C to +50°C (+5°F to +122°F)Storage temperature range–40°C to +70°C (–40°F to +158°F)Humidity (operating and storage)IEC 60068-2-30/24 h 95% relative humidity#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US529Technical dataEnvironmental dataEMCRadio spectrum••••••WEEE 2012/19/ECRoHs 2011/65/ECC-TickEN 61000-6-3EN 61000-6-2FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Class B•••ETSI EN 300 328FCC 47 CSR Part 15RSS-247 Issue 1EncapsulationIP 54 (IEC 60529)Shock25 g (IEC 60068-2-27)Vibration2 g (IEC 60068-2-6)Drop2 m (6.6 ft.)Physical dataCamera weight, incl. battery0.575 kg (1.27 lb.)Camera size (L × W × H)244 × 95 × 140 mm (9.6 × 3.7 × 5.5 in.)ColorBlack and grayCertificationsCertificationUL, CSA, CE, PSE and CCCShipping informationPackaging, typeList of contentsCardboard box•••••••Infrared cameraHard transport caseBattery (2x)USB cablePower supply/charger with EU, UK, US andAustralian plugsBattery chargerPrinted documentationPackaging, weight3.13 kg (6.9 lb.)Packaging, size385 × 165 × 315 mm (15.2 × 6.5 × 12.4 in.)EAN-134743254002890UPC-12845188014148Country of originEstoniaSupplies & accessories:••••••••••••T911093; Tool beltT198528; Hard transport case FLIR Ex-seriesT198530; BatteryT198531; Battery charger incl power supplyT198532; Car chargerT198534; Power supply USB-microT198529; Pouch FLIR Ex and ix seriesT198533; USB cable Std A <-> Micro BT199362ACC; Battery Li-ion 3.6 V, 2.6 Ah, 9.4 WhT198583; FLIR Tools+ (download card incl. license key)T199233; FLIR Atlas SDK for .NETT199234; FLIR Atlas SDK for MATLAB#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US5310Mechanical drawings[See next page]#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US54© 2012, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this drawing may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without written permission from FLIR Systems, Inc. Specifications subject to change without further notice. Dimensional data is based on nominal values. Products may be subject to regional market considerations. License procedures may apply.Product may be subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.com with any questions. Diversion contrary to US law is prohibited.IR optical axisVisual optical axisCamera with built-in IR lens f=6,5 mm (45°)2,17in55,2mm7,41in188,3mm0,53in13,5mm7in4,2 6mm1086in9,8 4mm250in1,9 m3m48,3,08in78,3mm5,52in140,1mm9in2,3 mm60,9,59in243,5mm3,73in94,8mm1,7in43,1mmOptical axis2,2in56mmCAHACheckDrawn byR&D ThermographyBasic dimensions FLIR Ex2013-03-25DenominationModified1:2T127831Drawing No.A2SizeScale101(2)SizeSheet© 2012, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this drawing may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without written permission from FLIR Systems, Inc. Specifications subject to change without further notice. Dimensional data is based on nominal values. Products may be subject to regional market considerations. License procedures may apply.Product may be subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.com with any questions. Diversion contrary to US law is prohibited.1,96in49,9mmCharger and Power pack3,52in89,5mm0,87in22,1mm2,6in66mm1,66in42,3mm1,41in35,8mm0,84in21,4mmR1 ,410,5 inmm3,21in81,5mm2,29in58,3mm4,13in105mmCAHACheckR&D ThermographyDrawn by2,56in65mmBasic dimensions FLIR ExDenomination2013-03-25ModifiedT127831Drawing No.1:2A3SizeScale102(2)SizeSheet11CE Declaration of conformity[See next page]#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US5712Cleaning the camera12.1 Camera housing, cables, and other items12.1.1LiquidsUse one of these liquids:• Warm water• A weak detergent solution12.1.2EquipmentA soft cloth12.1.3ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Soak the cloth in the liquid.2. Twist the cloth to remove excess liquid.3. Clean the part with the cloth.CAUTIONDo not apply solvents or similar liquids to the camera, the cables, or other items. This can causedamage.12.2 Infrared lens12.2.1LiquidsUse one of these liquids:• A commercial lens cleaning liquid with more than 30% isopropyl alcohol.• 96% ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH).12.2.2EquipmentCotton wool12.2.3ProcedureFollow this procedure:1. Soak the cotton wool in the liquid.2. Twist the cotton wool to remove excess liquid.3. Clean the lens one time only and discard the cotton wool.WARNINGMake sure that you read all applicable MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and warning labels on containers before you use a liquid: the liquids can be dangerous.CAUTION••Be careful when you clean the infrared lens. The lens has a delicate anti-reflective coating.Do not clean the infrared lens too vigorously. This can damage the anti-reflective coating.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US5913Application examples13.1 Moisture & water damage13.1.1GeneralIt is often possible to detect moisture and water damage in a house by using an infraredcamera. This is partly because the damaged area has a different heat conduction property and partly because it has a different thermal capacity to store heat than the surrounding material.Many factors can come into play as to how moisture or water damage will appear in aninfrared image.For example, heating and cooling of these parts takes place at different rates dependingon the material and the time of day. For this reason, it is important that other methods areused as well to check for moisture or water damage.13.1.2FigureThe image below shows extensive water damage on an external wall where the waterhas penetrated the outer facing because of an incorrectly installed window ledge.13.2 Faulty contact in socket13.2.1GeneralDepending on the type of connection a socket has, an improperly connected wire can result in local temperature increase. This temperature increase is caused by the reducedcontact area between the connection point of the incoming wire and the socket , and canresult in an electrical fire.A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. Forthis reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between wire andsocket, or from difference in load.13.2.2FigureThe image below shows a connection of a cable to a socket where improper contact inthe connection has resulted in local temperature increase.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6013Application examples13.3 Oxidized socket13.3.1GeneralDepending on the type of socket and the environment in which the socket is installed, oxides may occur on the socket's contact surfaces. These oxides can lead to locally increased resistance when the socket is loaded, which can be seen in an infrared imageas local temperature increase.A socket’s construction may differ dramatically from one manufacturer to another. Forthis reason, different faults in a socket can lead to the same typical appearance in an infrared image.Local temperature increase can also result from improper contact between a wire andsocket, or from difference in load.13.3.2FigureThe image below shows a series of fuses where one fuse has a raised temperature onthe contact surfaces against the fuse holder. Because of the fuse holder’s blank metal,the temperature increase is not visible there, while it is visible on the fuse’s ceramicmaterial.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6113Application examples13.4 Insulation deficiencies13.4.1GeneralInsulation deficiencies may result from insulation losing volume over the course of timeand thereby not entirely filling the cavity in a frame wall.An infrared camera allows you to see these insulation deficiencies because they eitherhave a different heat conduction property than sections with correctly installed insulation,and/or show the area where air is penetrating the frame of the building.When you are inspecting a building, the temperature difference between the inside andoutside should be at least 10°C (18°F). Studs, water pipes, concrete columns, and similar components may resemble an insulation deficiency in an infrared image. Minor differences may also occur naturally.13.4.2FigureIn the image below, insulation in the roof framing is lacking. Due to the absence of insulation, air has forced its way into the roof structure, which thus takes on a different characteristic appearance in the infrared image.13.5 Draft13.5.1GeneralDraft can be found under baseboards, around door and window casings, and above ceiling trim. This type of draft is often possible to see with an infrared camera, as a coolerairstream cools down the surrounding surface.When you are investigating draft in a house, there should be sub-atmospheric pressurein the house. Close all doors, windows, and ventilation ducts, and allow the kitchen fanto run for a while before you take the infrared images.An infrared image of draft often shows a typical stream pattern. You can see this streampattern clearly in the picture below.Also keep in mind that drafts can be concealed by heat from floor heating circuits.13.5.2FigureThe image below shows a ceiling hatch where faulty installation has resulted in a strongdraft.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6213Application examples#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6314About FLIR SystemsFLIR Systems was established in 1978 to pioneer the development of high-performanceinfrared imaging systems, and is the world leader in the design, manufacture, and marketing of thermal imaging systems for a wide variety of commercial, industrial, and government applications. Today, FLIR Systems embraces five major companies withoutstanding achievements in infrared technology since 1958—the Swedish AGEMA Infrared Systems (formerly AGA Infrared Systems), the three United States companies Indigo Systems, FSI, and Inframetrics, and the French company Cedip.Since 2007, FLIR Systems has acquired several companies with world-leading expertisein sensor technologies:••••••••••••••••Extech Instruments (2007)Ifara Tecnologías (2008)Salvador Imaging (2009)OmniTech Partners (2009)Directed Perception (2009)Raymarine (2010)ICx Technologies (2010)TackTick Marine Digital Instruments (2011)Aerius Photonics (2011)Lorex Technology (2012)Traficon (2012)MARSS (2013)DigitalOptics micro-optics business (2013)DVTEL (2015)Point Grey Research (2016)Prox Dynamics (2016)Figure 14.1 Patent documents from the early 1960sFLIR Systems has three manufacturing plants in the United States (Portland, OR, Boston, MA, Santa Barbara, CA) and one in Sweden (Stockholm). Since 2007 there is also amanufacturing plant in Tallinn, Estonia. Direct sales offices in Belgium, Brazil, China,France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and the USA—together with a worldwide network of agents and distributors—support our international customer base.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6414About FLIR SystemsFLIR Systems is at the forefront of innovation in the infrared camera industry. We anticipate market demand by constantly improving our existing cameras and developing newones. The company has set milestones in product design and development such as theintroduction of the first battery-operated portable camera for industrial inspections, andthe first uncooled infrared camera, to mention just two innovations.Figure 14.2 1969: Thermovision Model 661. Thecamera weighed approximately 25 kg (55 lb.), theoscilloscope 20 kg (44 lb.), and the tripod 15 kg(33 lb.). The operator also needed a 220 VACgenerator set, and a 10 L (2.6 US gallon) jar withliquid nitrogen. To the left of the oscilloscope thePolaroid attachment (6 kg/13 lb.) can be seen.Figure 14.3 2015: FLIR One, an accessory toiPhone and Android mobile phones. Weight: 90 g(3.2 oz.).FLIR Systems manufactures all vital mechanical and electronic components of the camera systems itself. From detector design and manufacturing, to lenses and system electronics, to final testing and calibration, all production steps are carried out andsupervised by our own engineers. The in-depth expertise of these infrared specialists ensures the accuracy and reliability of all vital components that are assembled into your infrared camera.14.1 More than just an infrared cameraAt FLIR Systems we recognize that our job is to go beyond just producing the best infrared camera systems. We are committed to enabling all users of our infrared camera systems to work more productively by providing them with the most powerful camera–software combination. Especially tailored software for predictive maintenance, R & D,and process monitoring is developed in-house. Most software is available in a wide variety of languages.We support all our infrared cameras with a wide variety of accessories to adapt yourequipment to the most demanding infrared applications.14.2 Sharing our knowledgeAlthough our cameras are designed to be very user-friendly, there is a lot more to thermography than just knowing how to handle a camera. Therefore, FLIR Systems hasfounded the Infrared Training Center (ITC), a separate business unit, that provides certified training courses. Attending one of the ITC courses will give you a truly hands-onlearning experience.The staff of the ITC are also there to provide you with any application support you mayneed in putting infrared theory into practice.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6514About FLIR Systems14.3 Supporting our customersFLIR Systems operates a worldwide service network to keep your camera running at alltimes. If you discover a problem with your camera, local service centers have all theequipment and expertise to solve it within the shortest possible time. Therefore, there isno need to send your camera to the other side of the world or to talk to someone whodoes not speak your language.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6615Definitions and lawsTermDefinitionAbsorption and emission2The capacity or ability of an object to absorb incident radiated energy is always the same as the capacity to emit itsown energy as radiationApparent temperatureuncompensated reading from an infrared instrument, containing all radiation incident on the instrument, regardless ofits sources3Color paletteassigns different colors to indicate specific levels of apparenttemperature. Palettes can provide high or low contrast, depending on the colors used in themConductiondirect transfer of thermal energy from molecule to molecule,caused by collisions between the moleculesConvectionheat transfer mode where a fluid is brought into motion, either by gravity or another force, thereby transferring heatfrom one place to anotherDiagnosticsexamination of symptoms and syndromes to determine thenature of faults or failures4Direction of heat transfer5Heat will spontaneously flow from hotter to colder, therebytransferring thermal energy from one place to another6Emissivityratio of the power radiated by real bodies to the power that isradiated by a blackbody at the same temperature and at thesame wavelength7Energy conservation8The sum of the total energy contents in a closed system isconstantExitant radiationradiation that leaves the surface of an object, regardless ofits original sourcesHeatthermal energy that is transferred between two objects (systems) due to their difference in temperatureHeat transfer rate9The heat transfer rate under steady state conditions is directly proportional to the thermal conductivity of the object,the cross-sectional area of the object through which the heatflows, and the temperature difference between the two endsof the object. It is inversely proportional to the length, orthickness, of the object10Incident radiationradiation that strikes an object from its surroundingsIR thermographyprocess of acquisition and analysis of thermal informationfrom non-contact thermal imaging devicesIsothermreplaces certain colors in the scale with a contrasting color. Itmarks an interval of equal apparent temperature11Qualitative thermographythermography that relies on the analysis of thermal patternsto reveal the existence of and to locate the position ofanomalies12Quantitative thermographythermography that uses temperature measurement to determine the seriousness of an anomaly, in order to establish repair priorities122. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation.3. Based on ISO 18434-1:2008 (en).4. Based on ISO 13372:2004 (en).5. 2nd law of thermodynamics.6. This is a consequence of the 2nd law of thermodynamics, the law itself is more complicated.7. Based on ISO 16714-3:2016 (en).8. 1st law of thermodynamics.9. Fourier’s law.10. This is the one-dimensional form of Fourier’s law, valid for steady-state conditions.11. Based on ISO 18434-1:2008 (en)12. Based on ISO 10878-2013 (en).#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6715Definitions and lawsTermDefinitionRadiative heat transferHeat transfer by the emission and absorption of thermalradiationReflected apparent temperatureapparent temperature of the environment that is reflected bythe target into the IR camera13Spatial resolutionability of an IR camera to resolve small objects or detailsTemperaturemeasure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules andatoms that make up the substanceThermal energytotal kinetic energy of the molecules that make up theobject14Thermal gradientgradual change in temperature over distance13Thermal tuningprocess of putting the colors of the image on the object ofanalysis, in order to maximize contrast13. Based on ISO 16714-3:2016 (en).14. Thermal energy is part of the internal energy of an object.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6816Thermographic measurementtechniques16.1 IntroductionAn infrared camera measures and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object.The fact that radiation is a function of object surface temperature makes it possible forthe camera to calculate and display this temperature.However, the radiation measured by the camera does not only depend on the temperature of the object but is also a function of the emissivity. Radiation also originates fromthe surroundings and is reflected in the object. The radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere.To measure temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the effects of a number of different radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically by thecamera. The following object parameters must, however, be supplied for the camera:•••••The emissivity of the objectThe reflected apparent temperatureThe distance between the object and the cameraThe relative humidityTemperature of the atmosphere16.2 EmissivityThe most important object parameter to set correctly is the emissivity which, in short, is ameasure of how much radiation is emitted from the object, compared to that from a perfect blackbody of the same temperature.Normally, object materials and surface treatments exhibit emissivity ranging from approximately 0.1 to 0.95. A highly polished (mirror) surface falls below 0.1, while an oxidizedor painted surface has a higher emissivity. Oil-based paint, regardless of color in the visible spectrum, has an emissivity over 0.9 in the infrared. Human skin exhibits an emissivity 0.97 to 0.98.Non-oxidized metals represent an extreme case of perfect opacity and high reflexivity,which does not vary greatly with wavelength. Consequently, the emissivity of metals islow – only increasing with temperature. For non-metals, emissivity tends to be high, anddecreases with temperature.16.2.116.2.1.1Finding the emissivity of a sampleStep 1: Determining reflected apparent temperatureUse one of the following two methods to determine reflected apparent temperature:#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US6916Thermographic measurement techniques16.2.1.1.1Method 1: Direct methodFollow this procedure:1. Look for possible reflection sources, considering that the incident angle = reflectionangle (a = b).Figure 16.1 1 = Reflection source2. If the reflection source is a spot source, modify the source by obstructing it using apiece if cardboard.Figure 16.2 1 = Reflection source#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7016Thermographic measurement techniques3. Measure the radiation intensity (= apparent temperature) from the reflection sourceusing the following settings:• Emissivity: 1.0• Dobj: 0You can measure the radiation intensity using one of the following two methods:Figure 16.3 1 = Reflection sourceFigure 16.4 1 = Reflection sourceYou can not use a thermocouple to measure reflected apparent temperature, because athermocouple measures temperature, but apparent temperatrure is radiation intensity.16.2.1.1.2Method 2: Reflector methodFollow this procedure:1. Crumble up a large piece of aluminum foil.2. Uncrumble the aluminum foil and attach it to a piece of cardboard of the same size.3. Put the piece of cardboard in front of the object you want to measure. Make sure thatthe side with aluminum foil points to the camera.4. Set the emissivity to 1.0.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7116Thermographic measurement techniques5. Measure the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil and write it down. The foil isconsidered a perfect reflector, so its apparent temperature equals the reflected apparent temperature from the surroundings.Figure 16.5 Measuring the apparent temperature of the aluminum foil.16.2.1.2Step 2: Determining the emissivityFollow this procedure:1. Select a place to put the sample.2. Determine and set reflected apparent temperature according to the previousprocedure.3. Put a piece of electrical tape with known high emissivity on the sample.4. Heat the sample at least 20 K above room temperature. Heating must be reasonablyeven.5. Focus and auto-adjust the camera, and freeze the image.6. Adjust Level and Span for best image brightness and contrast.7. Set emissivity to that of the tape (usually 0.97).8. Measure the temperature of the tape using one of the following measurementfunctions:• Isotherm (helps you to determine both the temperature and how evenly you haveheated the sample)• Spot (simpler)• Box Avg (good for surfaces with varying emissivity).9. Write down the temperature.10. Move your measurement function to the sample surface.11. Change the emissivity setting until you read the same temperature as your previousmeasurement.12. Write down the emissivity.Note• Avoid forced convection• Look for a thermally stable surrounding that will not generate spot reflections• Use high quality tape that you know is not transparent, and has a high emissivity youare certain of• This method assumes that the temperature of your tape and the sample surface arethe same. If they are not, your emissivity measurement will be wrong.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7216Thermographic measurement techniques16.3 Reflected apparent temperatureThis parameter is used to compensate for the radiation reflected in the object. If theemissivity is low and the object temperature relatively far from that of the reflected it willbe important to set and compensate for the reflected apparent temperature correctly.16.4 DistanceThe distance is the distance between the object and the front lens of the camera. Thisparameter is used to compensate for the following two facts:• That radiation from the target is absorbed by the atmosphere between the object andthe camera.• That radiation from the atmosphere itself is detected by the camera.16.5 Relative humidityThe camera can also compensate for the fact that the transmittance is also dependenton the relative humidity of the atmosphere. To do this set the relative humidity to the correct value. For short distances and normal humidity the relative humidity can normally beleft at a default value of 50%.16.6 Other parametersIn addition, some cameras and analysis programs from FLIR Systems allow you to compensate for the following parameters:• Atmospheric temperature – i.e. the temperature of the atmosphere between the camera and the target• External optics temperature – i.e. the temperature of any external lenses or windowsused in front of the camera• External optics transmittance – i.e. the transmission of any external lenses or windowsused in front of the camera#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7317History of infrared technologyBefore the year 1800, the existence of the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum wasn't even suspected. The original significance of the infrared spectrum, or simply‘the infrared’ as it is often called, as a form of heat radiation is perhaps less obvious today than it was at the time of its discovery by Herschel in 1800.Figure 17.1 Sir William Herschel (1738–1822)The discovery was made accidentally during the search for a new optical material. SirWilliam Herschel – Royal Astronomer to King George III of England, and already famousfor his discovery of the planet Uranus – was searching for an optical filter material to reduce the brightness of the sun’s image in telescopes during solar observations. Whiletesting different samples of colored glass which gave similar reductions in brightness hewas intrigued to find that some of the samples passed very little of the sun’s heat, whileothers passed so much heat that he risked eye damage after only a few seconds’observation.Herschel was soon convinced of the necessity of setting up a systematic experiment,with the objective of finding a single material that would give the desired reduction inbrightness as well as the maximum reduction in heat. He began the experiment by actually repeating Newton’s prism experiment, but looking for the heating effect rather thanthe visual distribution of intensity in the spectrum. He first blackened the bulb of a sensitive mercury-in-glass thermometer with ink, and with this as his radiation detector he proceeded to test the heating effect of the various colors of the spectrum formed on the topof a table by passing sunlight through a glass prism. Other thermometers, placed outsidethe sun’s rays, served as controls.As the blackened thermometer was moved slowly along the colors of the spectrum, thetemperature readings showed a steady increase from the violet end to the red end. Thiswas not entirely unexpected, since the Italian researcher, Landriani, in a similar experiment in 1777 had observed much the same effect. It was Herschel, however, who wasthe first to recognize that there must be a point where the heating effect reaches a maximum, and that measurements confined to the visible portion of the spectrum failed to locate this point.Figure 17.2 Marsilio Landriani (1746–1815)Moving the thermometer into the dark region beyond the red end of the spectrum, Herschel confirmed that the heating continued to increase. The maximum point, when hefound it, lay well beyond the red end – in what is known today as the ‘infraredwavelengths’.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7417History of infrared technologyWhen Herschel revealed his discovery, he referred to this new portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as the ‘thermometrical spectrum’. The radiation itself he sometimes referred to as ‘dark heat’, or simply ‘the invisible rays’. Ironically, and contrary to popularopinion, it wasn't Herschel who originated the term ‘infrared’. The word only began to appear in print around 75 years later, and it is still unclear who should receive credit as theoriginator.Herschel’s use of glass in the prism of his original experiment led to some early controversies with his contemporaries about the actual existence of the infrared wavelengths.Different investigators, in attempting to confirm his work, used various types of glass indiscriminately, having different transparencies in the infrared. Through his later experiments, Herschel was aware of the limited transparency of glass to the newly-discoveredthermal radiation, and he was forced to conclude that optics for the infrared would probably be doomed to the use of reflective elements exclusively (i.e. plane and curved mirrors). Fortunately, this proved to be true only until 1830, when the Italian investigator,Melloni, made his great discovery that naturally occurring rock salt (NaCl) – which wasavailable in large enough natural crystals to be made into lenses and prisms – is remarkably transparent to the infrared. The result was that rock salt became the principal infrared optical material, and remained so for the next hundred years, until the art of syntheticcrystal growing was mastered in the 1930’s.Figure 17.3 Macedonio Melloni (1798–1854)Thermometers, as radiation detectors, remained unchallenged until 1829, the year Nobiliinvented the thermocouple. (Herschel’s own thermometer could be read to 0.2 °C(0.036 °F), and later models were able to be read to 0.05 °C (0.09 °F)). Then a breakthrough occurred; Melloni connected a number of thermocouples in series to form thefirst thermopile. The new device was at least 40 times as sensitive as the best thermometer of the day for detecting heat radiation – capable of detecting the heat from a personstanding three meters away.The first so-called ‘heat-picture’ became possible in 1840, the result of work by Sir JohnHerschel, son of the discoverer of the infrared and a famous astronomer in his own right.Based upon the differential evaporation of a thin film of oil when exposed to a heat pattern focused upon it, the thermal image could be seen by reflected light where the interference effects of the oil film made the image visible to the eye. Sir John also managedto obtain a primitive record of the thermal image on paper, which he called a‘thermograph’.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7517History of infrared technologyFigure 17.4 Samuel P. Langley (1834–1906)The improvement of infrared-detector sensitivity progressed slowly. Another major breakthrough, made by Langley in 1880, was the invention of the bolometer. This consisted ofa thin blackened strip of platinum connected in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge circuitupon which the infrared radiation was focused and to which a sensitive galvanometer responded. This instrument is said to have been able to detect the heat from a cow at adistance of 400 meters.An English scientist, Sir James Dewar, first introduced the use of liquefied gases as cooling agents (such as liquid nitrogen with a temperature of -196 °C (-320.8 °F)) in low temperature research. In 1892 he invented a unique vacuum insulating container in which itis possible to store liquefied gases for entire days. The common ‘thermos bottle’, usedfor storing hot and cold drinks, is based upon his invention.Between the years 1900 and 1920, the inventors of the world ‘discovered’ the infrared.Many patents were issued for devices to detect personnel, artillery, aircraft, ships – andeven icebergs. The first operating systems, in the modern sense, began to be developedduring the 1914–18 war, when both sides had research programs devoted to the militaryexploitation of the infrared. These programs included experimental systems for enemyintrusion/detection, remote temperature sensing, secure communications, and ‘flying torpedo’ guidance. An infrared search system tested during this period was able to detectan approaching airplane at a distance of 1.5 km (0.94 miles), or a person more than 300meters (984 ft.) away.The most sensitive systems up to this time were all based upon variations of the bolometer idea, but the period between the two wars saw the development of two revolutionarynew infrared detectors: the image converter and the photon detector. At first, the imageconverter received the greatest attention by the military, because it enabled an observerfor the first time in history to literally ‘see in the dark’. However, the sensitivity of the image converter was limited to the near infrared wavelengths, and the most interesting military targets (i.e. enemy soldiers) had to be illuminated by infrared search beams. Sincethis involved the risk of giving away the observer’s position to a similarly-equipped enemyobserver, it is understandable that military interest in the image converter eventuallyfaded.The tactical military disadvantages of so-called 'active’ (i.e. search beam-equipped) thermal imaging systems provided impetus following the 1939–45 war for extensive secretmilitary infrared-research programs into the possibilities of developing ‘passive’ (nosearch beam) systems around the extremely sensitive photon detector. During this period, military secrecy regulations completely prevented disclosure of the status of infraredimaging technology. This secrecy only began to be lifted in the middle of the 1950’s, andfrom that time adequate thermal-imaging devices finally began to be available to civilianscience and industry.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7618Theory of thermography18.1 IntroductionThe subjects of infrared radiation and the related technique of thermography are still newto many who will use an infrared camera. In this section the theory behind thermographywill be given.18.2 The electromagnetic spectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum is divided arbitrarily into a number of wavelength regions,called bands, distinguished by the methods used to produce and detect the radiation.There is no fundamental difference between radiation in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are all governed by the same laws and the only differencesare those due to differences in wavelength.Figure 18.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. 1: X-ray; 2: UV; 3: Visible; 4: IR; 5: Microwaves; 6:Radiowaves.Thermography makes use of the infrared spectral band. At the short-wavelength end theboundary lies at the limit of visual perception, in the deep red. At the long-wavelengthend it merges with the microwave radio wavelengths, in the millimeter range.The infrared band is often further subdivided into four smaller bands, the boundaries ofwhich are also arbitrarily chosen. They include: the near infrared (0.75–3 μm), the middleinfrared (3–6 μm), the far infrared (6–15 μm) and the extreme infrared (15–100 μm).Although the wavelengths are given in μm (micrometers), other units are often still usedto measure wavelength in this spectral region, e.g. nanometer (nm) and Ångström (Å).The relationships between the different wavelength measurements is:18.3 Blackbody radiationA blackbody is defined as an object which absorbs all radiation that impinges on it at anywavelength. The apparent misnomer black relating to an object emitting radiation is explained by Kirchhoff’s Law (after Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, 1824–1887), which states thata body capable of absorbing all radiation at any wavelength is equally capable in theemission of radiation.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7718Theory of thermographyFigure 18.2 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824–1887)The construction of a blackbody source is, in principle, very simple. The radiation characteristics of an aperture in an isotherm cavity made of an opaque absorbing material represents almost exactly the properties of a blackbody. A practical application of theprinciple to the construction of a perfect absorber of radiation consists of a box that islight tight except for an aperture in one of the sides. Any radiation which then enters thehole is scattered and absorbed by repeated reflections so only an infinitesimal fractioncan possibly escape. The blackness which is obtained at the aperture is nearly equal toa blackbody and almost perfect for all wavelengths.By providing such an isothermal cavity with a suitable heater it becomes what is termeda cavity radiator. An isothermal cavity heated to a uniform temperature generates blackbody radiation, the characteristics of which are determined solely by the temperature ofthe cavity. Such cavity radiators are commonly used as sources of radiation in temperature reference standards in the laboratory for calibrating thermographic instruments,such as a FLIR Systems camera for example.If the temperature of blackbody radiation increases to more than 525°C (977°F), thesource begins to be visible so that it appears to the eye no longer black. This is the incipient red heat temperature of the radiator, which then becomes orange or yellow as thetemperature increases further. In fact, the definition of the so-called color temperature ofan object is the temperature to which a blackbody would have to be heated to have thesame appearance.Now consider three expressions that describe the radiation emitted from a blackbody.18.3.1Planck’s lawFigure 18.3 Max Planck (1858–1947)Max Planck (1858–1947) was able to describe the spectral distribution of the radiationfrom a blackbody by means of the following formula:#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7818Theory of thermographywhere:WλbBlackbody spectral radiant emittance at wavelength λ.Velocity of light = 3 × 108 m/sPlanck’s constant = 6.6 × 10-34 Joule sec.Boltzmann’s constant = 1.4 × 10-23 Joule/K.Absolute temperature (K) of a blackbody.λWavelength (μm).Note The factor 10-6 is used since spectral emittance in the curves is expressed inWatt/m2, μm.Planck’s formula, when plotted graphically for various temperatures, produces a family ofcurves. Following any particular Planck curve, the spectral emittance is zero at λ = 0,then increases rapidly to a maximum at a wavelength λmax and after passing it approaches zero again at very long wavelengths. The higher the temperature, the shorterthe wavelength at which maximum occurs.Figure 18.4 Blackbody spectral radiant emittance according to Planck’s law, plotted for various absolutetemperatures. 1: Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 × 103(μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm)18.3.2Wien’s displacement lawBy differentiating Planck’s formula with respect to λ, and finding the maximum, we have:This is Wien’s formula (after Wilhelm Wien, 1864–1928), which expresses mathematically the common observation that colors vary from red to orange or yellow as the temperature of a thermal radiator increases. The wavelength of the color is the same as thewavelength calculated for λmax. A good approximation of the value of λmax for a givenblackbody temperature is obtained by applying the rule-of-thumb 3 000/T μm. Thus, avery hot star such as Sirius (11 000 K), emitting bluish-white light, radiates with the peakof spectral radiant emittance occurring within the invisible ultraviolet spectrum, at wavelength 0.27 μm.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US7918Theory of thermographyFigure 18.5 Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928)The sun (approx. 6 000 K) emits yellow light, peaking at about 0.5 μm in the middle ofthe visible light spectrum.At room temperature (300 K) the peak of radiant emittance lies at 9.7 μm, in the far infrared, while at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K) the maximum of the almost insignificant amount of radiant emittance occurs at 38 μm, in the extreme infrared wavelengths.Figure 18.6 Planckian curves plotted on semi-log scales from 100 K to 1000 K. The dotted line representsthe locus of maximum radiant emittance at each temperature as described by Wien's displacement law. 1:Spectral radiant emittance (W/cm2 (μm)); 2: Wavelength (μm).18.3.3Stefan-Boltzmann's lawBy integrating Planck’s formula from λ = 0 to λ = ∞, we obtain the total radiant emittance(Wb) of a blackbody:This is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula (after Josef Stefan, 1835–1893, and Ludwig Boltzmann, 1844–1906), which states that the total emissive power of a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. Graphically, Wb represents thearea below the Planck curve for a particular temperature. It can be shown that the radiantemittance in the interval λ = 0 to λmax is only 25% of the total, which represents about theamount of the sun’s radiation which lies inside the visible light spectrum.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8018Theory of thermographyFigure 18.7 Josef Stefan (1835–1893), and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)Using the Stefan-Boltzmann formula to calculate the power radiated by the human body,at a temperature of 300 K and an external surface area of approx. 2 m2, we obtain 1 kW.This power loss could not be sustained if it were not for the compensating absorption ofradiation from surrounding surfaces, at room temperatures which do not vary too drastically from the temperature of the body – or, of course, the addition of clothing.18.3.4Non-blackbody emittersSo far, only blackbody radiators and blackbody radiation have been discussed. However,real objects almost never comply with these laws over an extended wavelength region –although they may approach the blackbody behavior in certain spectral intervals. For example, a certain type of white paint may appear perfectly white in the visible light spectrum, but becomes distinctly gray at about 2 μm, and beyond 3 μm it is almost black.There are three processes which can occur that prevent a real object from acting like ablackbody: a fraction of the incident radiation α may be absorbed, a fraction ρ may be reflected, and a fraction τ may be transmitted. Since all of these factors are more or lesswavelength dependent, the subscript λ is used to imply the spectral dependence of theirdefinitions. Thus:• The spectral absorptance αλ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power absorbed by anobject to that incident upon it.• The spectral reflectance ρλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power reflected by an object to that incident upon it.• The spectral transmittance τλ = the ratio of the spectral radiant power transmittedthrough an object to that incident upon it.The sum of these three factors must always add up to the whole at any wavelength, sowe have the relation:For opaque materials τλ = 0 and the relation simplifies to:Another factor, called the emissivity, is required to describe the fraction ε of the radiantemittance of a blackbody produced by an object at a specific temperature. Thus, wehave the definition:The spectral emissivity ελ= the ratio of the spectral radiant power from an object to thatfrom a blackbody at the same temperature and wavelength.Expressed mathematically, this can be written as the ratio of the spectral emittance ofthe object to that of a blackbody as follows:Generally speaking, there are three types of radiation source, distinguished by the waysin which the spectral emittance of each varies with wavelength.• A blackbody, for which ελ = ε = 1• A graybody, for which ελ = ε = constant less than 1#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8118Theory of thermography• A selective radiator, for which ε varies with wavelengthAccording to Kirchhoff’s law, for any material the spectral emissivity and spectral absorptance of a body are equal at any specified temperature and wavelength. That is:From this we obtain, for an opaque material (since αλ + ρλ = 1):For highly polished materials ελ approaches zero, so that for a perfectly reflecting material (i.e. a perfect mirror) we have:For a graybody radiator, the Stefan-Boltzmann formula becomes:This states that the total emissive power of a graybody is the same as a blackbody at thesame temperature reduced in proportion to the value of ε from the graybody.Figure 18.8 Spectral radiant emittance of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral radiant emittance; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Selective radiator; 5: Graybody.Figure 18.9 Spectral emissivity of three types of radiators. 1: Spectral emissivity; 2: Wavelength; 3: Blackbody; 4: Graybody; 5: Selective radiator.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8218Theory of thermography18.4 Infrared semi-transparent materialsConsider now a non-metallic, semi-transparent body – let us say, in the form of a thick flatplate of plastic material. When the plate is heated, radiation generated within its volumemust work its way toward the surfaces through the material in which it is partially absorbed. Moreover, when it arrives at the surface, some of it is reflected back into the interior. The back-reflected radiation is again partially absorbed, but some of it arrives at theother surface, through which most of it escapes; part of it is reflected back again.Although the progressive reflections become weaker and weaker they must all be addedup when the total emittance of the plate is sought. When the resulting geometrical seriesis summed, the effective emissivity of a semi-transparent plate is obtained as:When the plate becomes opaque this formula is reduced to the single formula:This last relation is a particularly convenient one, because it is often easier to measurereflectance than to measure emissivity directly.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8319The measurement formulaAs already mentioned, when viewing an object, the camera receives radiation not onlyfrom the object itself. It also collects radiation from the surroundings reflected via the object surface. Both these radiation contributions become attenuated to some extent by theatmosphere in the measurement path. To this comes a third radiation contribution fromthe atmosphere itself.This description of the measurement situation, as illustrated in the figure below, is so fara fairly true description of the real conditions. What has been neglected could for instance be sun light scattering in the atmosphere or stray radiation from intense radiationsources outside the field of view. Such disturbances are difficult to quantify, however, inmost cases they are fortunately small enough to be neglected. In case they are not negligible, the measurement configuration is likely to be such that the risk for disturbance isobvious, at least to a trained operator. It is then his responsibility to modify the measurement situation to avoid the disturbance e.g. by changing the viewing direction, shieldingoff intense radiation sources etc.Accepting the description above, we can use the figure below to derive a formula for thecalculation of the object temperature from the calibrated camera output.Figure 19.1 A schematic representation of the general thermographic measurement situation.1: Surroundings; 2: Object; 3: Atmosphere; 4: CameraAssume that the received radiation power W from a blackbody source of temperatureTsource on short distance generates a camera output signal Usource that is proportional tothe power input (power linear camera). We can then write (Equation 1):or, with simplified notation:where C is a constant.Should the source be a graybody with emittance ε, the received radiation would consequently be εWsource.We are now ready to write the three collected radiation power terms:1. Emission from the object = ετWobj, where ε is the emittance of the object and τ is thetransmittance of the atmosphere. The object temperature is Tobj.#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8419The measurement formula2. Reflected emission from ambient sources = (1 – ε)τWrefl, where (1 – ε) is the reflectance of the object. The ambient sources have the temperature Trefl.It has here been assumed that the temperature Trefl is the same for all emitting surfaces within the halfsphere seen from a point on the object surface. This is of coursesometimes a simplification of the true situation. It is, however, a necessary simplification in order to derive a workable formula, and Trefl can – at least theoretically – be given a value that represents an efficient temperature of a complex surrounding.Note also that we have assumed that the emittance for the surroundings = 1. This iscorrect in accordance with Kirchhoff’s law: All radiation impinging on the surroundingsurfaces will eventually be absorbed by the same surfaces. Thus the emittance = 1.(Note though that the latest discussion requires the complete sphere around the object to be considered.)3. Emission from the atmosphere = (1 – τ)τWatm, where (1 – τ) is the emittance of the atmosphere. The temperature of the atmosphere is Tatm.The total received radiation power can now be written (Equation 2):We multiply each term by the constant C of Equation 1 and replace the CW products bythe corresponding U according to the same equation, and get (Equation 3):Solve Equation 3 for Uobj (Equation 4):This is the general measurement formula used in all the FLIR Systems thermographicequipment. The voltages of the formula are:Table 19.1 VoltagesUobjCalculated camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperatureTobj i.e. a voltage that can be directly converted into true requestedobject temperature.UtotMeasured camera output voltage for the actual case.UreflTheoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperatureTrefl according to the calibration.UatmTheoretical camera output voltage for a blackbody of temperatureTatm according to the calibration.The operator has to supply a number of parameter values for the calculation:•••••the object emittance ε,the relative humidity,Tatmobject distance (Dobj)the (effective) temperature of the object surroundings, or the reflected ambient temperature Trefl, and• the temperature of the atmosphere TatmThis task could sometimes be a heavy burden for the operator since there are normallyno easy ways to find accurate values of emittance and atmospheric transmittance for theactual case. The two temperatures are normally less of a problem provided the surroundings do not contain large and intense radiation sources.A natural question in this connection is: How important is it to know the right values ofthese parameters? It could though be of interest to get a feeling for this problem alreadyhere by looking into some different measurement cases and compare the relative#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8519The measurement formulamagnitudes of the three radiation terms. This will give indications about when it is important to use correct values of which parameters.The figures below illustrates the relative magnitudes of the three radiation contributionsfor three different object temperatures, two emittances, and two spectral ranges: SW andLW. Remaining parameters have the following fixed values:• τ = 0.88• Trefl = +20°C (+68°F)• Tatm = +20°C (+68°F)It is obvious that measurement of low object temperatures are more critical than measuring high temperatures since the ‘disturbing’ radiation sources are relatively much stronger in the first case. Should also the object emittance be low, the situation would be stillmore difficult.We have finally to answer a question about the importance of being allowed to use thecalibration curve above the highest calibration point, what we call extrapolation. Imaginethat we in a certain case measure Utot = 4.5 volts. The highest calibration point for thecamera was in the order of 4.1 volts, a value unknown to the operator. Thus, even if theobject happened to be a blackbody, i.e. Uobj = Utot, we are actually performing extrapolation of the calibration curve when converting 4.5 volts into temperature.Let us now assume that the object is not black, it has an emittance of 0.75, and the transmittance is 0.92. We also assume that the two second terms of Equation 4 amount to 0.5volts together. Computation of Uobj by means of Equation 4 then results in Uobj = 4.5 /0.75 / 0.92 – 0.5 = 6.0. This is a rather extreme extrapolation, particularly when considering that the video amplifier might limit the output to 5 volts! Note, though, that the application of the calibration curve is a theoretical procedure where no electronic or otherlimitations exist. We trust that if there had been no signal limitations in the camera, and ifit had been calibrated far beyond 5 volts, the resulting curve would have been very muchthe same as our real curve extrapolated beyond 4.1 volts, provided the calibration algorithm is based on radiation physics, like the FLIR Systems algorithm. Of course theremust be a limit to such extrapolations.Figure 19.2 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (SW camera). 1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8619The measurement formulaFigure 19.3 Relative magnitudes of radiation sources under varying measurement conditions (LW camera). 1: Object temperature; 2: Emittance; Obj: Object radiation; Refl: Reflected radiation; Atm: atmosphere radiation. Fixed parameters: τ = 0.88; Trefl = 20°C (+68°F); Tatm = 20°C (+68°F).#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8720Emissivity tablesThis section presents a compilation of emissivity data from the infrared literature andmeasurements made by FLIR Systems.20.1 References1. Mikaél A. Bramson: Infrared Radiation, A Handbook for Applications, Plenum press,N.Y.2. William L. Wolfe, George J. Zissis: The Infrared Handbook, Office of Naval Research,Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.3. Madding, R. P.: Thermographic Instruments and systems. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin – Extension, Department of Engineering and Applied Science.4. William L. Wolfe: Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, Office of Naval Research,Department of Navy, Washington, D.C.5. Jones, Smith, Probert: External thermography of buildings..., Proc. of the Society ofPhoto-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, vol.110, Industrial and Civil Applications ofInfrared Technology, June 1977 London.6. Paljak, Pettersson: Thermography of Buildings, Swedish Building Research Institute,Stockholm 1972.7. Vlcek, J: Determination of emissivity with imaging radiometers and some emissivitiesat λ = 5 µm. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.8. Kern: Evaluation of infrared emission of clouds and ground as measured by weathersatellites, Defence Documentation Center, AD 617 417.9. Öhman, Claes: Emittansmätningar med AGEMA E-Box. Teknisk rapport, AGEMA1999. (Emittance measurements using AGEMA E-Box. Technical report, AGEMA1999.)10. Matteï, S., Tang-Kwor, E: Emissivity measurements for Nextel Velvet coating 811-21between –36°C AND 82°C.11. Lohrengel & Todtenhaupt (1996)12. ITC Technical publication 32.13. ITC Technical publication 29.14. Schuster, Norbert and Kolobrodov, Valentin G. Infrarotthermographie. Berlin: WileyVCH, 2000.Note The emissivity values in the table below are recorded using a shortwave (SW)camera. The values should be regarded as recommendations only and used withcaution.20.2 TablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference3M type 35Vinyl electricaltape (severalcolors)< 80LW≈ 0.96133M type 88Black vinyl electrical tape< 105LW≈ 0.96133M type 88Black vinyl electrical tape< 105MW< 0.96133M type Super 33Black vinyl electrical tape< 80LW≈ 0.9613Aluminumanodized sheet1000.55Aluminumanodized, black,dull70SW0.67Aluminumanodized, black,dull70LW0.95#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8820Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Aluminumanodized, lightgray, dull70SW0.61Aluminumanodized, lightgray, dull70LW0.97Aluminumas received, plate1000.09Aluminumas received,sheet1000.09Aluminumcast, blastcleaned70SW0.47Aluminumcast, blastcleaned70LW0.46Aluminumdipped in HNO3,plate1000.05Aluminumfoil2710 µm0.04Aluminumfoil273 µm0.09Aluminumoxidized, strongly50–5000.2–0.3Aluminumpolished50–1000.04–0.06Aluminumpolished plate1000.05Aluminumpolished, sheet1000.05Aluminumrough surface20–500.06–0.07Aluminumroughened2710 µm0.18Aluminumroughened273 µm0.28Aluminumsheet, 4 samplesdifferentlyscratched70SW0.05–0.08Aluminumsheet, 4 samplesdifferentlyscratched70LW0.03–0.06Aluminumvacuumdeposited200.04Aluminumweathered,heavily17SW0.83–0.94200.60Aluminum bronzeAluminumhydroxidepowder0.28Aluminum oxideactivated, powder0.46Aluminum oxidepure, powder(alumina)0.16Asbestosboard0.96Asbestosfabric0.78Asbestosfloor tile35SW0.94Asbestospaper40–4000.93–0.95Asbestospowder0.40–0.60Asbestosslate200.96LLW0.967Asphalt paving20Brassdull, tarnished20–3500.22Brassoxidized1000.61Brassoxidized70SW0.04–0.09#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US8920Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Brassoxidized70LW0.03–0.07Brassoxidized at 600°C200–6000.59–0.61Brasspolished2000.03Brasspolished, highly1000.03Brassrubbed with 80grit emery200.20Brasssheet, rolled200.06Brasssheet, workedwith emery200.2Brickalumina17SW0.68Brickcommon17SW0.86–0.81BrickDinas silica,glazed, rough11000.85BrickDinas silica,refractory10000.66BrickDinas silica, unglazed, rough10000.80Brickfirebrick17SW0.68Brickfireclay10000.75Brickfireclay12000.59Brickfireclay200.85Brickmasonry35SW0.94Brickmasonry,plastered200.94Brickred, common200.93Brickred, rough200.88–0.93Brickrefractory,corundum10000.46Brickrefractory,magnesite1000–13000.38Brickrefractory,strongly radiating500–10000.8–0.9Brickrefractory, weaklyradiating500–10000.65–0.75Bricksilica, 95% SiO212300.66Bricksillimanite, 33%SiO2, 64% Al2O315000.29Brickwaterproof17SW0.87Bronzephosphor bronze70SW0.08Bronzephosphor bronze70LW0.06Bronzepolished500.1Bronzeporous, rough50–1500.55Bronzepowder0.76–0.80Carboncandle soot0.95Carboncharcoal powder0.96Carbongraphite powder0.97#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US209020Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Carbongraphite, filedsurface200.98Carbonlampblack20–4000.95–0.97Chipboarduntreated20SW0.90Chromiumpolished500.10Chromiumpolished500–10000.28–0.38Clayfired700.91Clothblack200.98200.92ConcreteConcretedry36SW0.95Concreterough17SW0.97ConcretewalkwayLLW0.974Coppercommercial,burnished200.07Copperelectrolytic, carefully polished800.018Copperelectrolytic,polished–340.006Coppermolten1100–13000.13–0.15Copperoxidized500.6–0.7Copperoxidized toblackness0.88Copperoxidized, black270.78Copperoxidized, heavily200.78Copperpolished50–1000.02Copperpolished1000.03Copperpolished,commercial270.03Copperpolished,mechanical220.015Copperpure, carefullyprepared surface220.008Copperscraped270.07Copper dioxidepowder0.84Copper oxidered, powder0.700.89800.85200.9EboniteEmerycoarseEnamelEnamellacquer200.85–0.95Fiber boardhard, untreated20SW0.85Fiber boardmasonite70SW0.75Fiber boardmasonite70LW0.88Fiber boardparticle board70SW0.77Fiber boardparticle board70LW0.89Fiber boardporous, untreated20SW0.85#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9120Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Glass pane (floatglass)non-coated20LW0.9714Goldpolished1300.018Goldpolished, carefully200–6000.02–0.03Goldpolished, highly1000.02Granitepolished20LLW0.849Graniterough21LLW0.879Graniterough, 4 differentsamples70SW0.95–0.97Graniterough, 4 differentsamples70LW0.77–0.87200.8–0.9GypsumIce: See WaterIron and steelcold rolled70SW0.20Iron and steelcold rolled70LW0.09Iron and steelcovered with redrust200.61–0.85Iron and steelelectrolytic1000.05Iron and steelelectrolytic220.05Iron and steelelectrolytic2600.07Iron and steelelectrolytic, carefully polished175–2250.05–0.06Iron and steelfreshly workedwith emery200.24Iron and steelground sheet950–11000.55–0.61Iron and steelheavily rustedsheet200.69Iron and steelhot rolled1300.60Iron and steelhot rolled200.77Iron and steeloxidized1000.74Iron and steeloxidized1000.74Iron and steeloxidized12270.89Iron and steeloxidized125–5250.78–0.82Iron and steeloxidized2000.79Iron and steeloxidized200–6000.80Iron and steeloxidized strongly500.88Iron and steeloxidized strongly5000.98Iron and steelpolished1000.07Iron and steelpolished400–10000.14–0.38Iron and steelpolished sheet750–10500.52–0.56Iron and steelrolled sheet500.56Iron and steelrolled, freshly200.24Iron and steelrough, planesurface500.95–0.98Iron and steelrusted red, sheet220.69Iron and steelrusted, heavily17SW0.96#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9220Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Iron and steelrusty, red200.69Iron and steelshiny oxide layer,sheet,200.82Iron and steelshiny, etched1500.16Iron and steelwrought, carefullypolished40–2500.28Iron galvanizedheavily oxidized70SW0.64Iron galvanizedheavily oxidized70LW0.85Iron galvanizedsheet920.07Iron galvanizedsheet, burnished300.23Iron galvanizedsheet, oxidized200.28Iron tinnedsheet240.064Iron, castcasting500.81Iron, castingots10000.95Iron, castliquid13000.28Iron, castmachined800–10000.60–0.70Iron, castoxidized1000.64Iron, castoxidized2600.66Iron, castoxidized380.63Iron, castoxidized5380.76Iron, castoxidized at 600°C200–6000.64–0.78Iron, castpolished2000.21Iron, castpolished380.21Iron, castpolished400.21Iron, castunworked900–11000.87–0.95Krylon Ultra-flatblack 1602Flat blackRoom temperature up to 175LW≈ 0.9612Krylon Ultra-flatblack 1602Flat blackRoom temperature up to 175MW≈ 0.9712Lacquer3 colors sprayedon Aluminum70SW0.50–0.53Lacquer3 colors sprayedon Aluminum70LW0.92–0.94LacquerAluminum onrough surface200.4Lacquerbakelite800.83Lacquerblack, dull40–1000.96–0.98Lacquerblack, matte1000.97Lacquerblack, shiny,sprayed on iron200.87Lacquerheat–resistant1000.92Lacquerwhite1000.92Lacquerwhite40–1000.8–0.95Leadoxidized at 200°C2000.63Leadoxidized, gray200.28#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9320Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Leadoxidized, gray220.28Leadshiny2500.08Leadunoxidized,polished1000.051000.931000.930.75–0.80Lead redLead red, powderLeathertannedLime0.3–0.4Magnesium220.07Magnesium2600.135380.18200.070.861500–22000.19–0.26600–10000.08–0.13700–25000.1–0.317SW0.87MagnesiumMagnesiumpolishedMagnesiumpowderMolybdenumMolybdenumMolybdenumfilamentMortarMortardry36SW0.94Nextel Velvet811-21 BlackFlat black–60–150LW> 0.9710 and11Nichromerolled7000.25Nichromesandblasted7000.70Nichromewire, clean500.65Nichromewire, clean500–10000.71–0.79Nichromewire, oxidized50–5000.95–0.98Nickelbright matte1220.041Nickelcommerciallypure, polished1000.045Nickelcommerciallypure, polished200–4000.07–0.09Nickelelectrolytic220.04Nickelelectrolytic2600.07Nickelelectrolytic380.06Nickelelectrolytic5380.10Nickelelectroplated oniron, polished220.045Nickelelectroplated oniron, unpolished200.11–0.40Nickelelectroplated oniron, unpolished220.11Nickelelectroplated,polished200.05Nickeloxidized12270.85Nickeloxidized2000.37Nickeloxidized2270.37#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9420Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Nickeloxidized at 600°C200–6000.37–0.48Nickelpolished1220.045Nickelwire200–10000.1–0.21000–12500.75–0.86Nickel oxideNickel oxide500–6500.52–0.59Oil, lubricating0.025 mm film200.27Oil, lubricating0.050 mm film200.46Oil, lubricating0.125 mm film200.72Oil, lubricatingfilm on Ni base:Ni base only200.05Oil, lubricatingthick coating200.82Paint8 different colorsand qualities70SW0.88–0.96Paint8 different colorsand qualities70LW0.92–0.94PaintAluminum, various ages50–1000.27–0.67Paintcadmium yellow0.28–0.33Paintchrome green0.65–0.70Paintcobalt blue0.7–0.8Paintoil17SW0.87Paintoil based, average of 16 colors1000.94Paintoil, black flat20SW0.94Paintoil, black gloss20SW0.92Paintoil, gray flat20SW0.97Paintoil, gray gloss20SW0.96Paintoil, various colors1000.92–0.96Paintplastic, black20SW0.95Paintplastic, white20SW0.84Paper4 different colors70SW0.68–0.74Paper4 different colors70LW0.92–0.94Paperblack0.90Paperblack, dull0.94Paperblack, dull70SW0.86Paperblack, dull70LW0.89Paperblue, dark0.84Papercoated with blacklacquer0.93Papergreen0.85Paperred0.76Paperwhite200.7–0.9Paperwhite bond200.93Paperwhite, 3 differentglosses70SW0.76–0.78#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9520Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Paperwhite, 3 differentglosses70LW0.88–0.90Paperyellow0.7217SW0.86Plasterplasterboard,untreated20SW0.90Plasterrough coat200.91Plasticglass fibre laminate (printed circ.board)70SW0.94Plasticglass fibre laminate (printed circ.board)70LW0.91Plasticpolyurethane isolation board70LW0.55Plasticpolyurethane isolation board70SW0.29PlasticPVC, plastic floor,dull, structured70SW0.94PlasticPVC, plastic floor,dull, structured70LW0.93Platinum1000.05Platinum1000–15000.14–0.18Platinum10940.18Platinum170.016Platinum220.03Platinum2600.06Platinum5380.10PlasterPlatinumpure, polished200–6000.05–0.10Platinumribbon900–11000.12–0.17Platinumwire14000.18Platinumwire500–10000.10–0.16Platinumwire50–2000.06–0.07Porcelainglazed200.92Porcelainwhite, shiny0.70–0.75Rubberhard200.95Rubbersoft, gray, rough200.95SandSand0.60200.90Sandstonepolished19LLW0.909Sandstonerough19LLW0.935Silverpolished1000.03Silverpure, polished200–6000.02–0.03Skinhuman320.98Slagboiler0–1000.97–0.93Slagboiler1400–18000.69–0.67Slagboiler200–5000.89–0.78#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9620Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Slagboiler600–12000.76–0.70Soildry200.92Soilsaturated withwater200.95Stainless steelalloy, 8% Ni, 18%Cr5000.35Stainless steelrolled7000.45Stainless steelsandblasted7000.70Stainless steelsheet, polished70SW0.18Stainless steelsheet, polished70LW0.14Stainless steelsheet, untreated,somewhatscratched70SW0.30Stainless steelsheet, untreated,somewhatscratched70LW0.28Stainless steeltype 18-8, buffed200.16Stainless steeltype 18-8, oxidized at 800°C600.85Stuccorough, lime10–900.91Styrofoaminsulation37SW0.600.79–0.84Tarpaper200.91–0.93Tileglazed17SW0.94Tinburnished20–500.04–0.06Tintin–plated sheetiron1000.07Titaniumoxidized at 540°C10000.60Titaniumoxidized at 540°C2000.40Titaniumoxidized at 540°C5000.50Titaniumpolished10000.36Titaniumpolished2000.15Titaniumpolished5000.20Tungsten1500–22000.24–0.31Tungsten2000.05Tungsten600–10000.1–0.16Snow: See WaterTarTungstenfilament33000.39Varnishflat20SW0.93Varnishon oak parquetfloor70SW0.90Varnishon oak parquetfloor70LW0.90–0.93Wallpaperslight pattern,light gray20SW0.85Wallpaperslight pattern, red20SW0.90Waterdistilled200.96#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US9720Emissivity tablesTable 20.1 T: Total spectrum; SW: 2–5 µm; LW: 8–14 µm, LLW: 6.5–20 µm; 1: Material; 2: Specification;3:Temperature in °C; 4: Spectrum; 5: Emissivity: 6:Reference (continued)Waterfrost crystals–100.98Waterice, covered withheavy frost0.98Waterice, smooth0.97Waterice, smooth–100.96Waterlayer >0.1 mmthick0–1000.95–0.98Watersnow0.8Watersnow–100.85Wood17SW0.98Wood19LLW0.9620.5–0.7WoodgroundWoodpine, 4 differentsamples70SW0.67–0.75Woodpine, 4 differentsamples70LW0.81–0.89Woodplaned200.8–0.9Woodplaned oak200.90Woodplaned oak70SW0.77Woodplaned oak70LW0.88Woodplywood, smooth,dry36SW0.82Woodplywood,untreated20SW0.83Woodwhite, damp200.7–0.8Zincoxidized at 400°C4000.11Zincoxidized surface1000–12000.50–0.60Zincpolished200–3000.04–0.05Zincsheet500.20#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US98A note on the technical production of this publicationThis publication was produced using XML — the eXtensible Markup Language. For more informationabout XML, please visit http://www.w3.org/XML/A note on the typeface used in this publicationThis publication was typeset using Linotype Helvetica™ World. Helvetica™ was designed by MaxMiedinger (1910–1980)LOEF (List Of Effective Files)T501027.xml; en-US; AK; 40423; 2017-02-16T505552.xml; en-US; 9599; 2013-11-05T505469.xml; en-US; 39689; 2017-01-25T505013.xml; en-US; 39689; 2017-01-25T505545.xml; en-US; 39841; 2017-01-30T505547.xml; en-US; 39841; 2017-01-30T505550.xml; en-US; 40415; 2017-02-16T505786.xml; en-US; 40282; 2017-02-14T505470.xml; en-US; 39513; 2017-01-18T505012.xml; en-US; 39581; 2017-01-20T505007.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505004.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505000.xml; en-US; 39687; 2017-01-25T505005.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505001.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18T505006.xml; en-US; 39581; 2017-01-20T505002.xml; en-US; 39512; 2017-01-18#T559828; r. AK/40423/40423; en-US100Websitelastpagehttp://www.flir.comCustomer supporthttp://support.flir.comCopyright© 2017, FLIR Systems, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide.DisclaimerSpecifications subject to change without further notice. Models and accessories subject to regional market considerations. License procedures may apply.Products described herein may be subject to US Export Regulations. Please refer to exportquestions@flir.com with any questions.Publ. No.:Release:Commit:Head:Language:Modified:Formatted:T559828AK4042340423en-US2017-02-162017-02-16
Document ID3315942
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(Video) Elevated Temperature Screening Mode Troubleshooting Guide | FLIR Systems

FAQs

How do I use FLIR infrared camera? ›

How to use the FLIR ONE Thermal Imaging Camera - YouTube

How do I set up my FLIR camera? ›

How to setup the FLIR Secure WiFi Security Camera using ... - YouTube

How do you charge a FLIR thermal camera? ›

Plug the Lightning USB end of the power cable into the FLIR ONE and plug the other end into a 1A power source. The Charge Indicator LED will blink while the device is charging. The FLIR ONE requires less than one hour for a full charge (with a 1A source).

Why is my FLIR camera not working? ›

What can I try if my FLIR software is not working properly? Make sure Windows Firewall is not preventing the program from working properly. In case your user does not have permission to access the settings for Windows Firewall, please reach out to your IT department.

What app do I use for my FLIR camera? ›

Getting started with your FLIR ONE

Install the FLIR ONE app on your phone/tablet from the App Store (iOS) or the Play Store (Android). Turn on your FLIR ONE by pressing the power button and wait until the steady orange light changes to a blinking green light. This means that the camera is ready for use.

What do the colors on a thermal camera mean? ›

In any thermogram, the brighter colors (red, orange, and yellow) indicate warmer temperatures (more heat and infrared radiation emitted) while the purples and dark blue/black indicate cooler temperatures (less heat and infrared radiation emitted).

How do I connect my FLIR camera to WIFI? ›

How to connect IR Camera to an Android device:
  1. Push in on the center of the navigation pad to display the menu system.
  2. Select Setting and push in on the center of the navigation pad. ...
  3. Use the navigation pad to select Connections > Wi-Fi.
  4. Select Connect to network and push in on the center of the navigation pad.
Mar 23, 2020

What is the default password for FLIR cameras? ›

Local Connection

Enter the client user name (default: admin) and password (default: admin) and click Login. Install FLIR Cloud™ Client from the CD or from www.flir.com/security/support on a PC or Mac in the same LAN as the IP camera. ) and then click Devices ( ). The client scans your LAN for connected IP cameras.

How do you reset a FLIR camera? ›

How do I restore the default settings for a handheld FLIR camera?
  1. Tap the touch screen to show the menu bar.
  2. Select Settings (gear button).
  3. Select Device Settings.
  4. Select Reset Options.
  5. Select Reset device settings to factory default…

How do I change the battery in my FLIR camera? ›

How to change the battery in FLIR ONE PRO LT 3. Generation for iOS ...

Does FLIR ONE show temperature? ›

The FLIR ONE Pro will show you the temperature range of the scene, and allow you to adjust the temperature mapping, using a feature called IR Scale. To use, tap on the IR Scale icon in the Imaging Options menu. The scale will appear on the left side of the screen, with the high and low temperatures labeled.

How far can FLIR one pro See? ›

The FLIR ONE Pro operates at 32°F to 95°F (0°C to 35°C) and can detect temperatures from -4°F to 752°F (-20°C to 400°C). Q: How far away can I see a hot spot? A: Thermal cameras, like visible cameras, can see as far as your eye can see in most cases.

How do I upload photos from FLIR camera? ›

FLIR Tools - Importing Images - YouTube

How do I factory reset my FLIR ONE pro? ›

To reset your FLIR ONE, please follow these steps:
  1. Connect the camera to the charger and wait to see the LED indicating it is being charged (Charger output needs to be 5V and at least 1A)
  2. Wait for 1 hour until the battery is fully charged.
  3. Press and hold the power button for 30 seconds.
Nov 26, 2019

How do I connect FLIR to my computer? ›

How can I connect my FLIR Ethernet camera to FLIR Tools?
  1. Open Programs and Features in the Windows Control Panel.
  2. Select FLIR Tools from the list.
  3. Click the Change button.
  4. Click the Options button and click "Network Camera Support". Then continue with the installation.

How does Flir thermal camera work? ›

A FLIR thermal camera can detect tiny differences in heat—as small as 0.01°C—and display them as shades of grey or with different color palettes. The same image with heat differences displayed in the ironbow and white hot palettes. Everything we encounter in our day-to-day lives gives off thermal energy—even ice.

What can you do with a FLIR camera? ›

A: Thermal imaging makes the otherwise invisible world of heat energy visible to your eyes. Everything around you either emits or reflects heat energy. For example, with FLIR ONE, when you look around a room in your home, you can see where doors and windows are not well insulated.

How do you use a thermal imaging camera? ›

How to use a Thermal Camera to seal your house - YouTube

How do you get a thermal camera to work on iPhone? ›

How to turn your iPhone into a Thermal Camera! | iJustine - YouTube

Videos

1. Flir T640 Infrared Camera Demo
(AC Tool Supply)
2. Teledyne Flir: Thermal Camera Systems
(Munro Live)
3. FLIR C5 Series compact thermal camera basic operational tutorial
(Infrared Learning)
4. Boating Tips | Raymarine Edition: Night Vision and Thermal Imaging with FLIR
(MarineMax)
5. Flir Ex E6 Thermal Imaging Camera User Guide
(Luke Maddox)
6. FLIR E4, E5, E6, E8 Thermal Imaging Cameras
(Anaum)

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