Using Thermal Imaging Cameras to Detect Commercial Roof Moisture - IKO (2023)

Friday, February 28 2020

Thermal imaging cameras can create detailed maps of commercial low-slope roofs, showing where excess moisture is trapped, where the source of a leak may be, or where there is soaked or compromised insulation. Roofing professionals scan the roof, taking images to compile into a composite map, or they take an aerial image of the whole roof. These thermal images narrow the search for water intrusion, without damaging or puncturing the roof, saving time and pinpointing areas for repair.

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Thermal imaging cameras capture infrared radiation, a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is not visible to humans. Infrared light can be used as a way to measure the heat radiated by an object. Also, because thermal cameras completely ignore the visible light, their heat readings aren’t obscured by solid objects, like walls or roof membranes.

The basic principle behind the technology is that moisture adds thermal mass to a roofing material, which makes it hold onto heat longer than the dry material next to it. Under the right conditions, the thermal camera captures that heat the way normal cameras capture visible light, creating an image that shows the extent of moisture problems within the roofing system.

Thermal imaging is an essential element in the predictive maintenance of a multimillion-dollar roof asset. It is an excellent means to illustrate moisture infiltration and migration in the field of a roof and can aid in planning for life cycle budgets and provision for remediation. Thermal imaging can identify good parts of a roof and result in long-term conservation. Utilizing this technology can help prevent water destruction before a leak becomes serious and therefore allows owners to be proactive in stopping collateral damage to the building interior. It is another resource to evaluate the overall health of the roof without random or destructive testing.

There is a lot to learn about thermal imaging to ensure you get the full benefit from it. We’ll cover what you need to know in this guide.

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Why Thermographic Cameras are Important for Roofing Professionals

Before thermographic cameras were available, roofing professionals used different methods to find leaks and condensation on flat commercial roofs. These methods, such as using dielectric capacitance meters and nuclear density gauges, only allowed for spot measurements and also possibly involved taking sacrificial samples of the roof. Testing an entire roof with these technologies was time-consuming, intrusive and expensive guesswork. In contrast, thermographic imaging is quite fast and relatively inexpensive.

Thermographic imaging offers the building owner significantly more information about exactly where moisture is hidden, even which specific layer of the roof the moisture is on and which areas of the roof are still dry and functioning. This allows owners to save a significant amount on their investment and replace only what is wet, saving money by minimizing tear-offs.

This additional information that thermographic imaging offers also makes it an excellent choice for property management companies or large corporations where many people are involved in the decision-making, for several reasons:

  • Thermographic imaging produces maps that can be included in reports about the roof’s status. With interpretation from a certified infrared professional, these maps can be easy to reference, understand and used to start action outlines.
  • These maps can also help plan your budget and estimate the costs of roof repair.
  • Facilities managers can use the maps to find leaks and other insidious and dangerous issues, such as formation of mold or moisture erosion of the roof deck’s structural integrity. Long-term exposure to moisture can cause some metal decks to rust and weaken.
  • Insurance companies may take thermal maps into account when assessing real-time conditions of the building and determining rates. Some roof manufacturers may require thermal imaging to maintain warranties or guarantees. Potential buyers are highly likely to require this type of roof assessment.

How a Thermal Imaging Camera Works

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Heat gives off infrared light. Thermal cameras capture the infrared light and take a picture of that light, the same way your smart phone’s camera takes a picture of visible light.

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The more heat in an area, the brighter that area appears in the resulting image. Though thermal cameras produce images in black and white, thermographers often use computer software to add colours to the images to make the subtle differences in temperature more pronounced.

Thermography has many applications outside of the roofing world. In particular, it’s used by firefighters to find lingering flames, and in night vision instruments to find people and animals. It is also used to map blood flow in humans to help diagnose cancer and other conditions.

How Thermal Imaging Roof Inspections Find Moisture

When using thermographic cameras to find moisture on roofs, certified thermographic professionals take advantage of the fact that water adds thermal mass to objects. Wet roofing insulation soaks up more heat from the sun during the day. At night, it releases this heat more slowly, appearing warmer in the thermal imaging.

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The temperature difference between the wet roofing material and the dry may only be 2 to 4 degrees; so a thermal imaging camera used for this purpose must be very sensitive. There are also many elements on a roof that can appear warmer without being wet, such as HVAC equipment and wet flat-roof drains. A certified infrared professional is needed to determine where these warm elements are before the test and to ensure that the final images are interpreted properly. Reflective roofing materials may also appear to be wet on the thermal image; so it’s also necessary for your infrared professional to know precisely what materials have been used in the roof’s construction.

Further, because a thermal imaging camera detects the heat from excess moisture, the results of the imaging must be confirmed. Usually, this is done with a nonpenetrating moisture meter.

This tool is a probe that finds moisture in the roof without cutting into the membrane. Checking an entire commercial roof with this tool isn’t feasible because it would be very time-consuming. Instead, performing spot checks to confirm the findings of a thermal imaging scan can help prevent unnecessary replacement of roofing materials.

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When Can a Thermal Imaging Scan be Performed on a Roof?

An infrared professional must wait for just the right conditions to scan the roof. Depending on the climate and current weather conditions, there are two options a thermographer may employ: a hot scan and a cold scan.

For a hot scan, outside temperatures must be above 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) and sunny. Without sufficient heat, or with too much cloud cover, the roof will not absorb enough heat during the day to show clear results on the scan. This heat absorption is called “solar loading.”

Additionally, it is not recommended to scan after a recent rain. If the roof is wet from rain, it will be challenging or impossible to tell if the moisture revealed on the scan is from the rain or from a leak. The same principle holds for dew. If the dew point is reached, and condensation forms on the outside of the roof, it will be hard to tell the dew from internal condensation.

As long as it is a warm, dry day, the scan can be performed in the early evening. As temperatures drop at night, the roof will begin to unload its heat; but the soaked areas will hold their heat longer, so they will appear brighter on the scan. The scan must be performed quickly. Depending on the rate of temperature change, even the wet areas of the roof can quickly lose the heat that the scan detects. Ideally, the scan will be completed before this happens; but, if not, it must be resumed again another night.

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In cold climates, achieving these warm and dry conditions may not be possible. Instead, building owners in these areas can perform cold scans when the temperature is 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) or less. Instead of relying on the sun for solar loading, this method relies on the internal heat of the building to warm up the roof. It may be necessary to increase the temperature inside the building for a short period of time to make this difference more dramatic.

No matter your climate, an experienced thermographer can guide you to help choose the ideal conditions.

Thermal Cameras for Commercial Roofing

There are many applications for thermal imaging, and so there are many different types of cameras available on the market. For commercial roofing, the ideal thermal camera should be highly heat-sensitive and capable of detecting a single degree difference. It’s also best if the camera measures midwave arrays (3-5 micrometres) over longwave arrays (8 micrometres and more), as these waves are less likely to be distorted by any reflective materials on the roof or its insulation.

Also, a wide-angle lens and high spatial resolution are both important, so that the images show not just the moisture, but enough of the roof that roofing professionals can use them as a guide to find the exact location of the moisture.

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How Roofing Material Affects Thermographic Scans

Thermal imaging technology is an incredibly useful tool, but it can only be used on certain commercial low-slope (flat) roof types, under specific weather conditions, and at specific times. Built‐up roofing systems and Heat welded membrane systems are usually ideal for infrared roof moisture scans. However, not all commercial roofing materials are ideal for thermographic scans. In fact, certain materials and roof systems make it next to impossible for infrared scanning to be useful.

Commercial roof systems and materials that are incompatible with most infrared roof moisture scan methods include:

  • Roofs with concrete decks, especially lightweight insulating concrete with entrained moisture.
  • Inverted or protected roof membrane assemblies.
  • Certain insulation types, including foam glass and closed cell foam, such as polyurethane.
  • Vegetative roofs.
  • Heavily ballasted roofs.
  • Metal roofs, especially those with reflective coatings.
  • White roofs or those with foil-faced insulation assemblies, which are very challenging to scanners.

Any other “cold” roof assembly will make infrared roof moisture scans challenging. These roof types have insulation below the deck and a layer of ventilation that releases heat from under the metal. The only method that can capture moisture in the insulation of these roofs is the “under the roof” method we discuss later in this article.

Roof systems and materials that make infrared roof moisture scans more challenging, but not impossible, include:

  • Foil‐faced insulation.
  • PMA roofs – Protected Membrane Assemblies layer the insulation above the waterproofing membrane, as opposed to conventional roof systems.
  • Roof systems that are white or lightly coloured in order to reflect heat.

Other elements of the roof or building that can affect the thermal scan include:

  • Ponding on the surface of the roof.
  • A great deal of ballast on the roof.
  • Heat-producing equipment beneath the roof. (This equipment can simply be turned off a few hours before the scan.)
  • Previous repair jobs if the material used was different than the material on the rest of the roof.

Conducting the Scan

There are four methods for conducting thermal scans of roofs.

1. Under the Roof Method

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This scan is performed from inside of the building. First, you have to move obstructions out of the line of sight to the roof, including ceiling panels. This can be very labour-intensive, and so this method is rarely used unless no other option is available. This is the only method you can use for metal roofs.

Once the ceiling material has been removed, you simply point and shoot the thermal camera at the roof. The limited angle of view of this method means you’ll need to take multiple images and record their positions under the roof to find any revealed moisture later. Further, as your images don’t include roof landmarks, it’s hard for roofing professionals to use these images to guide their repair efforts when they are on top of the roof.

2. On-Roof Method

This scan method involves taking images while standing on top of the roof. Often with this method, the infrared professionals will mark any areas of moisture with paint so that it is easier to find them again later.

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3. Elevated Vantage Point Method

Taking thermographic images from an elevated position can make them easier to understand later as they will capture more of the roof’s surface, including any features that can be used as landmarks to guide the repair efforts. It’s a common mistake for thermographers to take pictures too close to the wet areas, and this method helps prevents that.

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4. Aerial Method

Taking thermal footage from an aircraft or drone has many advantages. Using this method, the roofer can create a whole map of a roof, even a large one. With a high-resolution thermal camera, these maps can be very detailed. However, a very powerful camera is necessary, as the further you get from the roof’s surface, the more the heat dissipates, making readings more challenging.

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Aerial thermal roof measurements may be the only option for roofs that are inaccessible, dangerous or very large. From the roofer’s perspective, an aerial scan is convenient as they can do multiple roofs per night and don’t have to carry around their equipment. While previously this type of scanning would have been quite costly, drone technology has made it more accessible.

Before any of these scans are conducted, you or your thermal imaging professional should examine the roof for access points, sources of heat, flashing and penetration details, and any safety hazards. This will help the thermal professional to better interpret the final results and to stay safe while performing the scan.

After the Scan

After the thermal imaging is produced, you will need both a professional to interpret the results and a roofer to perform verification, find the exact source of any leaks and complete any necessary repairs.

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What are the Benefits of Thermal Imaging on Commercial Roofs?

Building owners will benefit from regular thermal imaging roof inspections even if their roofs currently appear to function normally. Establishing a baseline thermal signature can aid in long-term maintenance planning and budgeting. Imaging can provide input into building heat/cooling projections and planning for long-term thermal differentials and loading. Conservationists can identify performing parts of a roof and restore R-values of insulations to original conditions.

Also, when done well, infrared roof moisture scans can detect very minor moisture problems. This will allow building owners to address these problems before they have a chance to become serious. A leak in a roof may not immediately enter into the building below. Instead, the insulation may soak up the water, becoming ineffective at insulating. It may also damage other layers of the roof by spreading the moisture.

Get Started With a Thermal Scan of Your Roof

An experienced thermographer can advise you as to whether or not your roof is a good candidate for thermal imaging, which kind of thermal scan would give you the best results and when you can expect the right conditions to conduct the scan. A thermographer is always recommended to interpret the results of a thermal imaging scan.

Though thermal imaging requires very specific conditions, it’s an extremely valuable tool to help commercial flat-roof property managers and owners, as well as roofers, cut costs and maintain their roof and its limited warranty, without unnecessary repairs. After you’ve had thermal imaging, you can contact an experienced roofer through our Contractor Locator to perform the necessary repairs.

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Can thermal imaging detect moisture? ›

A thermal imaging camera cannot “see” moisture in walls, but it can detect subtle temperature differences and patterns that reveal the existence of water. Moisture is one of the most difficult issues to detect in a building - the signs are subtle and easy to miss until water starts dripping from the ceiling.

Can thermal imaging see through roofs? ›

Infrared Moisture Surveys give contractors and inspectors the ability to see what is happening under your roof's membrane without having to damage your roof system.

Can infrared detect moisture? ›

An IR camera can detect moisture located behind interior walls under the right conditions. The temperature difference created by the presence of moisture on the inside surface of a wall will appear differently than the surrounding area.

What can a thermal camera not see through? ›

In all cases, thermal cameras can never see “through” metal objects, but conductive metals might reveal hot spots, cold spots, or the level of a substance inside a metal container.

What does moisture look like on thermal camera? ›

A thermal imager does what a moisture meter can't: detect differences in surface temperature. These cameras are most useful in zeroing in on areas that might require testing with a moisture meter. Areas affected by moisture appear cooler -- usually blue -- on the camera's screen.

How expensive is thermal imaging? ›

Find out how much your project will cost.

The average cost of an infrared thermal imaging inspection is $350. Prices vary from around $150 to $650, depending on various factors.

Can thermal imaging see through fog and rain? ›

Although thermal imaging cameras can see in total darkness, through light fog, light rain, and snow, the distance they can see is affected by these atmospheric conditions.

How far can a thermal imaging camera see? ›

The spot size ratio is 19.62:15000. This number is the measurable size of one single pixel (1 x 1). To put it in more simple terms, this calculation tells you that your camera can measure a 19.62 mm spot from 15 metres away.

Can thermal imaging see through aluminum foil? ›

Can thermal imaging see through aluminium foil? ​The answer is NO. Any electrically conductive material will block infrared radiation. The greater the conductivity, the greater the blocking.

What sensor measures moisture? ›

Tensiometers are soil moisture sensors that measure this tension between soil particles and water molecules.

Is there an app that detects moisture? ›

iQuarius. Designed for Android users, iQuarius is a simple to use water leak detection app that pinpoints the exact location of any leaks. The app makes it possible for users to detect leaks swiftly; and, have them fixed in no time.

Can thermal cameras see people through walls? ›

Thermal imaging can't see through walls but can detect the heat near the surface.

What shows up on a thermal camera? ›

Thermal imagers make pictures from heat, not visible light. Heat (also called infrared or thermal energy) and light are both parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, but a camera that can detect visible light won't see thermal energy, and vice versa.

Can thermal imaging camera see inside walls? ›

Can Thermal Cameras See through Walls? No. No thermal camera can see through a wall or any solid object. The common misconception is that thermal camera can see heat and nothing else therefore if there is a heat source behind a wall or solid object it should pick up the heat.

Does moisture in camera go away? ›

Moisture in your phone screen, charging port, camera lens, the headphone jack will dry out naturally if you can wait patiently.

What do the colors on a thermal camera mean? ›

In any thermogram, the brighter colors (red, orange, and yellow) indicate warmer temperatures (more heat and infrared radiation emitted) while the purples and dark blue/black indicate cooler temperatures (less heat and infrared radiation emitted).

What does blue mean on a thermal camera? ›

When examining a thermograph, blue is cold. Green is roughly room temperature. Shades of red and white display areas of inflammation. In a black-and-white thermal image, the darker colors are hotter.

What is the difference between FLIR and thermal? ›

FLIRs make pictures from heat, not visible light. Heat (also called infrared, or thermal, energy) and light are both parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, but a camera that can detect visible light won't see thermal energy, and vice versa.

Can I use iPhone as thermal camera? ›

The FLIR ONE for iOS Thermal Imaging Camera, in combination with its free app, transforms your iPhone or iPad into a powerful thermal imager.

Can thermal cameras see through clouds? ›

Clouds, haze, and darkness often obscure the targets of traditional visual-spectrum cameras. Thermal imaging cuts directly through these barriers.

What are the three different types of thermal imaging technology? ›

The three wavelengths are: Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR), Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR), and Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR). All Thermal imaging devices operating on the infrared wavelength are, 'imagers' that we commonly refer to as 'cameras', however they are actually sensors that can detect radiated heat.

Can thermal infrared see through clouds? ›

Water droplets are usually smaller than 100 microns, which is small, but still much larger than the span of an infrared or visible-light wave, so neither infrared light nor visible light can pass easily through clouds.

Which is better night vision or thermal imaging? ›

Thermal is best used to detect the desired game object. Night vision is best used to recognize, identify and harvest the game only if facial recognition is required or for deer depredation. If you have your choice of options, thermal imaging is the best twenty-four hour imaging option.

Does thermal imaging work at night? ›

Thermal imaging detects minute differences in heat when detecting game. Thermal scopes detect radiation and do not require any visible light to produce an image. Thermal imaging devices can be used equally well day and night.

How deep into the ground can a thermal camera see? ›

The subterranean limit for most radar is about 30 feet, El-Baz said. Infrared imaging, which detects surface-level heat differences above buried objects, is most effective to a depth of about five feet, he said, though it, too, has been used to track objects 25 feet down.

What can infrared not pass through? ›

Far-infrared light is not detected by digital cameras and will not pass through clear plastic or water.

Can thermal imaging see through plexiglass? ›

In the case of plexiglass and glass, however, infrared light is not able to pass through, resulting in a blank spot where Jacob's head and hand used to be. You can even see it with Jacob's glasses, as they are cooler than most of his face in the infrared.

Can thermal imaging see through dust? ›

Infrared thermal cameras can see through dust, thus increasing vehicle safety.

Which is the best moisture sensor? ›

Best Overall: XLUX Soil Moisture Meter

85% of 24,500+ Amazon reviewers rated this product 4 stars or above. For a reliable moisture meter that doesn't require any upkeep or special care, this tool from XLUX is perfect. It measures the moisture in the soil continuously, displaying the results on a 1 to 10 analog scale.

What is the best method to measure moisture content? ›

The primary methods used are loss on drying and Karl Fischer titration. Loss on Drying. In this method, a wet sample is weighed on a balance, placed in an oven, and heated until the end of the drying period, i.e., until the sample reaches equilibrium. The weight loss is the moisture content of the sample.

Do thermal cameras work better in hot or cold conditions? ›

The colder temperature will provide a better definition because of a greater initial thermal differential with warmer objects.

Is a thermal camera worth it? ›

They are a great tool because thermal imaging can see what your eyes can't. You'll see hot and cold spots where insulation is missing, identify where air is getting in or out of your house, and more.

Are thermal imaging cameras accurate? ›

FLIR thermal camera with screening mode can achieve accuracies of ±0.3°C (0.5°F) at the recommended ambient temperate of 30°C to 45°C (86°F to 113°F).

Can a smartphone detect humidity? ›

The Android platform provides four sensors that let you monitor various environmental properties. You can use these sensors to monitor relative ambient humidity, illuminance, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature near an Android-powered device.

How accurate are moisture readers? ›

A high-quality moisture meter used on the right material can be accurate to within less than 0.1% of the material's moisture content by weight. However, a low-end moisture meter can be wildly inaccurate.

Is a moisture meter worth it? ›

A soil moisture meter is worth the investment for the following reasons: A soil moisture meter can provide an accurate and numerical reading of soil moisture levels, so you will be better informed about when to quench the plants' thirst or hold off on watering. They are easy to use.

Can thermal cameras find hidden cameras? ›

A thermal imaging camera lets you notice the heat from a hidden camera. So, it can help spot even the most small-sized spy tech.

What is black on a thermal camera? ›

Shades of red and white display areas of inflammation. In thermal image, the darker is color the hotter it will be. Accordingly, the purples and dark blue/black indicate cooler temperatures (because they emit less heat and infrared radiation).

Can a thermal camera see mold? ›

Thermal imaging can not detect mold but can detect variations in temperatures behind walls, which assists in cold spots that can become potential moisture or water intrusion issues. Moisture meters are used after the hot and cold spots are found.

What can thermal imaging detect? ›

Thermal imaging systems generally detect a high body temperature accurately when used appropriately.

What can thermal imaging diagnose? ›

Currently, many physicians employ thermal imaging cameras to detect a number of medical conditions, such as arthritis, repetitive strain injury, muscular pain, and circulatory problems.

How do you detect moisture? ›

A moisture meter is an essential instrument used in many industries to detect moisture content in materials. Home and building inspectors rely on moisture meters to identify potential problems and damage to structures from moisture buildup.

How far can a thermal camera detect? ›

Depending on the camera configuration chosen it may be possible to detect humans beyond 15 km distance, ground vehicles or small boats beyond 20 km, larger ships or vessels and aircraft beyond 30 km.

What's better infrared or thermal imaging? ›

Because thermal imagers operate in longer infrared wavelength regions than active IR, they do not see reflected light, and are therefore not affected by oncoming headlights, smoke, haze, dust, etc.

How far away does thermal imaging work? ›

A typical application for thermal imaging is border security, where most threats occur at night. Watchtowers spaced at 4km intervals or more have to be able to detect threats at ranges up to 2km or more to guarantee full coverage of the border.

Can thermal imaging see in the dark? ›

Thermal imaging cameras see in total darkness, producing clear, crisp images without the need for any light. This makes IR cameras excellent instruments for numerous night vision applications.

Is thermal imaging covered by insurance? ›

Is Thermography covered by insurance? Some insurance companies cover thermography screenings, but most do not. Payment is due at the time of service. We have found that some companies will reimburse or give a partial reimbursement and are happy to provide an invoice for you to submit to your insurance company.

How deep should a moisture sensor be? ›

Two sensors per site should be placed at about 1/4 and 3/4, or 1/3 and 2/3, of the root zone. With three sensors, the shallowest sensor should be placed about 4 – 6 inches deep, then the next one at 1/2 – 2/3 of the root zone depth, and the last one towards the bottom of the root zone.

Do moisture sensors work? ›

Soil Moisture sensors are a practical, quick and effective tool for monitoring soil moisture content out in the field.

What is the fastest way to determine moisture content? ›

The simplest way to measure moisture content is to weigh the product, remove all the moisture, and then weigh again. Methods that attempt to remove all the water from a product are called direct methods. These range from the simple (oven-drying) to the involved (Karl Fischer titration).

How do you check for moisture in the ceiling? ›

Moisture meters are a very helpful tool for detecting moisture in building materials and for finding leaks in a structure—even when the origin point may be out of sight. This is why restoration moisture meters are crucial tools for water damage remediation experts.

What is the two methods of moisture determination? ›

Methods of Measuring Moisture Content:

Direct measurement: water content is determined by removing moisture and then by measuring weight loss; Indirect measurement: an intermediate variable is measured and then converted into moisture content.


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